Pleosporales Luttr. ex M.E. Barr.

MycoBank number: MB 90563; Index Fungorum number: IF 90563; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08715;

Pleosporales is the largest order in the Dothideomycetes, comprising a quarter of all dothideomycetous species (Hyde et al. 2013, Liu et al. 2017a). Luttrell (1955) invalidly introduced the order Pleosporales and later validly established by Barr (1987b), based on the family Pleosporaceae with the type species Pleospora herbarum (Barr 1987a). Pleosporalean species show a cosmopolitan distribution in worldwide, as epiphytes, saprobes, endophytes or parasites, pathogens, hyperparasites on fungi or insects and or as lichenized fungi (Zhang et al. 2012b, Hyde et al. 2013, Wanasinghe et al. 2018c, Mapook et al. 2020). Pleosporales are characterised by perithecioid ascomata typically with a papilla and bitunicate, generally fissitunicate asci bearing mostly septate ascospores of different colours and shapes, with or without a gelatinous sheath (Zhang et al. 2012b, Hyde et al. 2013, Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2016, Jaklitsch et al. 2018b). Asexual morphs of the Pleosporales are usually coelomycetous, but also can be hyphomycetous (Zhang et al. 2012b, Hyde et al. 2013). Hyde et al. (2013) included 41 families in Pleosporales while in a recent study by Wijayawardene et al. (2018) listed 75 families in Pleosporales. Based on both morphology and phylogeny evidence, Pleosporales comprises 91 families in this study. The divergence time for Pleosporales is estimated as 205 MYA (stem age) (Fig. 2).

Figure 2 – The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree of families in Dothideomycetes obtained from a Bayesian approach (BEAST). The fossil minimum age constraints and second calibrations used in this study are marked with green dots. Bars correspond to the 95 % highest posterior density (HPD) intervals. The scale axis shows divergence times as millions of years ago (MYA). Geological periods are indicated at the base of the tree.

Figure 2 – Continued.

Figure 2 – Continued.