Parabambusicolaceae Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray., Stud. Mycol. 82: 115 (2015).

MycoBank number: MB 811324; Index Fungorum number: IF 811324; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06708, 14 species.

Saprobic in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered or in groups, immersed to erumpent, globose, subglobose to hemisphaerical, with rough black surface, ostiolate. Ostiole short papillate, central, sometimes compressed, composed of heavily melanised cells. Peridium two-layered, outer layer of small heavily pigmented thick-walled cells of textura angularis, inner layer of hyaline thin-walled cells textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising numerous, hyaline, septate, narrow, branched, pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a gel matrix. Asci 8- spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate to broadly cylindrical, pedicellate, apically round, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping 2–3-seriate, clavate, ellipsoidal to subfusiform, hyaline, reddish-brown or pale, 1- to multi-septate, with the primary septum almost median, with small to large guttules in each cell, generally surrounded by an irregular, hyaline, gelatinous sheath. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous, phoma-like, or sporodochial, monodictys-like hyphomycetous (Tanaka et al. 2015, Phukhamsakda et al. 2018a).

TypeParabambusicola Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray.

Notes – Tanaka et al. (2015) introduced Parabambusicolaceae to accommodate massarina- like species from bamboo and grasses. They included Aquastroma, Multiseptospora and Parabambusicola (the type) in this family. Li et al. (2016a) introduced Multilocularia which was also collected from bamboo. Wanasinghe et al. (2017b) accounted Neoaquastroma as another genus in this family from decaying wood in Thailand. Phukhamsakda et al. (2018a) introduced two new species to Neoaquastroma from Bauhinia variegata, and Barringtonia acutangular. This confirms that the parabambusicolous taxa are not restricted to bamboo but can be found on different hosts. Wijayawardene et al. (2017a) accepted five genera in this family (Aquastroma, Multilocularia, Multiseptospora, Neoaquastroma, Parabambusicola). Phukhamsakda et al. (2018a) showed that Pseudomonodictys also should be included from their multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. Phookamsak et al. (2019) introduced Lonicericola and Paratrimmatostroma and Hyde et al. (2020b) introduced Paramonodictys as new genus to this family.