Coniothyriaceae W.B. Cooke, Revta Biol., Lisb. 12: 289 (1983) [1980-1983].
MycoBank number: MB 80635; Index Fungorum number: IF 80635; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08170, 464 species.
Pathogenic (Necrotrophic, leaf spot) or saprobic or saprobic on dead branches, Sexual morph: cucurbitaria-like. Ascomata black, superficial to semi-immersed, gregarious, confluent, sometimes scattered beneath the host periderm or on decorticated wood, fully or partly erumpent, globose, black, ostiolate. Ostiole central, short. Peridium composed of blackish to dark brown cells of textura angularis, cells towards the inside lighter, composed of thin-walled cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising numerous, branched septate, cellular pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, short pedicellate. Ascospores overlapping 1-seriate, muriform, mostly ellipsoidal, initially hyaline, becoming brown at maturity, slightly paler, conical and narrow at the ends, 4–6-transversely septate, with 1–2 vertical septa, constricted at middle septum. Asexual morph: Conidiomata pycnidial, separate, immersed, globose, dark or pale brown, uni-locular, thin-walled. Peridium brown, thick-walled cells of textura angularis or globulosa. Ostiole central, circular, sometimes papillate. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells lining the inner cavity. Macroconidiogenous cells hyaline, smooth, doliiform, proliferating percurrently at apex, Macroconidia solitary, ellipsoid, red-brown, with central transverse septum, becoming muriformly septate, smooth-walled. Microconidial cells intermingled with macroconidial cells, hyaline, integrated, proliferating percurrently at apex, subcylindrical. Microconidia globose to ellipsoid, hyaline, aseptate, smooth-walled.
Type – Coniothyrium Corda.
Notes – The family was introduced to accommodate Coniothyrium spp. Later Coniothyriaceae was synonymized to Leptosphaeriaceae by Kirk et al. (2008). Coniothyriaceae was reinstated in Pleosporales as de Gruyter et al. (2013) revealed the distinct phylogenetic relationship between Coniothyrium palmarum and Leptosphaeriaceae. Further de Gruyter et al. (2013) transferred some Phoma spp. to Coniothyrium as they claded in Coniothyriaceae. Hence C. minitans and C. sporulosum claded in Montagnulaceae, the two species were included in the new genus Paraconiothyrium by Verkley et al. (2004b). Cortinas et al. (2004) showed that Coniothyrium zuluense was accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae. Cortinas et al. (2006) and Crous et al. (2009b) suggested that C. zuluense is well-accommodated in Colletogloeopsis (Phaeosphaeriaceae). Quaedvlieg et al. (2014) reported Colletogloeopsis under Teratosphaeriaceae.