Didymosphaeriaceae Munk, Dansk bot. Ark. 15(no. 2): 128 (1953).

Index Fungorum number: IF 80702; MycoBank number: MB 80702; Facesoffungi number: FoF 00200, 452 species.

Saprobic, endophytic or pathogenic on woody branches, herbaceous stems, leaves and occasionally human pathogen. Sexual morph: Ascomata immersed to semi-immersed, solitary, scattered, globose to subglobose, central ostiolate with minute papilla, ostiolar canal filled with hyaline cells (periphyses). Peridium thin to thick walled with equal or unequal thickness, slightly thin at the base, composed of several layers of lightly pigmented to dark brown to black, cells of textura angularis, cells towards the inside lighter, darker and fusing with the host tissues at outer. Hamathecium comprising hyaline, broad, septate, narrow, cellular or trabeculate pseudoparaphyses often in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 2–4-spored or 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindric or oblong, pedicellate, with or without an ocular chamber. Ascospores 1–2-seriate, overlapping, ellipsoid or oblong, rounded ends, brown, 1–3-septate or muriform. Asexual morph: Fusicladium- like and phoma-like (Hyde et al. 2013).

TypeDidymosphaeria Fuckel.

Notes – Munk (1953) introduced Didymosphaeriaceae and typified the family by Didymosphaeria, with D. epidermidis as the type species. Several studies have been conducted on the family. In particular, Ariyawansa et al. (2014b) discussed the confusion surrounding genera of Didymosphaeriaceae and mentioned that the family appears to be a distinct family of Pleosporales based on morphological characteristics. However, the molecular data could not resolve its phylogenetic placement as a distinct family from Montagnulaceae. Ariyawansa et al. (2014b) synonymized Montagnulaceae under Didymosphaeriaceae based on well-resolved phylogenetic data and morphological comparisons. Sixteen genera were accepted in Didymosphaeriaceae by Ariyawansa et al. (2014b) and Wijayawardene et al. (2014c) introduced another two asexual genera Paracamarosporium and Pseudocamarosporium. Crous et al. (2015b, d) introduced Verrucoconiothyrium and Xenocamarosporium and Ariyawansa et al. (2015a) transferred Austropleospora and Pseudopithomyces to Didymosphaeriaceae. Laburnicola and Paramassariosphaeria were introduced by Wanasinghe et al. (2016b) and Kalmusibambusa by Thambugala et al. (2017b). According to the outline of Wijayawardene et al. (2018), Sporidesmiella is also included in Didymosphaeriaceae. Luo et al. (2019) introduced three Sporidesmiella species from freshwater habitats and included within Junewangiaceae. Therefore, we excluded Sporidesmiella from Didymosphaeriaceae. Currently, 32 genera are accepted in Didymosphaeriaceae. Among them some genera are monotypic or contain only a few species with molecular data, i.e. Alloconiothyrium, Barria, Bimuria, Didymosphaeria, Kalmusibambusa, Karstenula, Letendraea, Lineostroma, Neptunomyces, Vicosamyces, Xenocamarosporium. Therefore, fresh collections are needed for these genera.