Shiraiaceae Y.X. Liu, Zi Y. Liu & K.D. Hyde, Phytotaxa 103(1): 53 (2013).

MycoBank number: MB 803884; Index Fungorum number: IF 803884; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06202, 3 species.

Endophytic or parasitic on bamboo and wood. Sexual morph Ascostromata pinkish or dark brown to black, irregular, scattered, tuberculate, fleshy, easily peeling off host tissues without damage, multi-loculate. Locules immersed, arranged in a peripheral layer, subglobose or obpyriform, ostiolate. Peridium of locules comprising a single layer of light brown-walled cells or comprising several layers of thick-walled, brown to dark brown, heavily pigmented small cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising relatively narrow, numerous, cellular pseudoparaphyses. Asci 6- or 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, with a pedicel and an ocular chamber. Ascospores 1-seriate or distichously arranged, fusiform, hyaline or brown, muriform. Asexual morph forming in young ascostromata. Asexual locules immersed, arranged in rows or irregularly arranged, subglobose to ampulliform, lining comprising thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells, arising all around the basal region of the locules. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, unbranched, discrete, indeterminate, cylindrical, septate, hyaline, smooth. Conidia fusiform, muriform, asymmetrical, hyaline to light brown, with irregularly arranged transverse and longitudinal septa, acute at base, apex obtuse, or obtuse at both ends, smooth- and thick-walled.

TypeShiraia Henn.

Notes – This family was introduced by Liu et al. (2013) based on its unique morphological characteristics and the fact the family forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage from Phaeosphaeriaceae using LSU sequence data with high statistic support. The family contains three genera, Shiraia, Grandigallia, and Rubroshiraia (Hyde et al. 2013, Ariyawansa et al. 2013b, Dai et al. 2019). Because of lack of molecular evidence, Grandigallia is suggested to be included in the family based on morphological characteristics (Ariyawansa et al. 2013b).