Tetraplosphaeriaceae Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray., Stud. Mycol. 64: 177 (2009).
MycoBank number: MB 515253; Index Fungorum number: IF 515253; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06665, 41 species.
Mostly saprobic on decaying bamboo, some soil and water inhabiting. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered to clustered, immersed to superficial, globose to subglobose, or oval to elongate, glabrous or with brown hyphae at sides. Beak absent or short-papillate to cylindrical, central, with periphyses. Peridium composed of rectangular to polygonal or cylindrical, hyaline to brown cells, sometimes with rim-like structure at the sides. Hamathecium comprising septate, branched, cellular or trabeculate pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, fissitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, short-stalked, sometimes with an ocular chamber. Ascospores 1–2-seriate, narrowly fusiform to broadly cylindrical, straight or slightly curved, hyaline to pale brown, 1–3-septate, constricted at the septum, smooth, surrounded by an entire mucilaginous sheath or narrow appendage-like sheath. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Colonies on natural substrate effuse, black, scattered. Conidiophores micronematous to macronematous, erect, unbranched, septate, brown. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, terminal or indistinguishable from creeping hyphae. Conidia solitary, globose to long obpyriform, composed of 3–8 columns or internal hyphal structure, brown to dark brown, mostly verrucose at the base, with 2–8 setose appendages arising from apical or/and basal part.
Type – Tetraploa Berk. & Broome.
Notes – Tanaka et al. (2009) established Tetraplosphaeriaceae typified by Tetraplosphaeria to accommodate five new genera, Polyplosphaeria, Pseudotetraploa, Quadricrura, Tetraplosphaeria and Triplosphaeria. However, Tetraplosphaeria was treated as a synonym of Tetraploa due to nomenclatural priority. Most Tetraplosphaeriaceae species were reported from bamboo (Tanaka et al. 2009, Li et al. 2016a), while Tetraploa species occur on diverse hosts (Hyde et al. 2013). Species in this family have massarina-like sexual morphs which are characterized by hyaline, 1–3-septate ascospores surrounded by sheath, and asexual morphs which are characterized by conidia with setose appendages (Tanaka et al. 2009, Hyde et al. 2013, Tibpromma et al. 2018).