Torulaceae Corda, Deutschl. Fl., 3 Abt. (Pilze Deutschl.) 2: 71 (1829).
MycoBank number: MB 81478; Index Fungorum number: IF 81478; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01740, 85 species.
Saprobic in terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Colonies discrete, dark brown to black, effuse, dry, velvety. Mycelium mostly immersed. Conidiophores erect, or reduced to conidiogenous cells, brown, subcylindrical, with or without apical branches. Conidiogenous cells mono- to polyblastic, doliiform to ellipsoid or clavate, brown, smooth to verruculose, sometimes cupulate. Conidia mostly subcylindrical, phragmosporous, sometimes in branched chains, sometimes solitary, acrogenous, brown, dry, septate, smooth-walled to verrucose. Conidial secession schizolytic.
Type – Torula Pers.
Notes – Torulaceae is known only from its asexual characters. It is characterized by immersed mycelium, erect, micro- or macronematous, straight or flexuous, subcylindrical conidiophores, with or without apical branches and doliiform to ellipsoid or clavate, brown, smooth to verruculose, and mono- to polyblastic conidiogenous cells. Conidia are subcylindrical, phragmosporous, acrogenous, brown, dry, and smooth to verrucose, characteristically produced in branched chains (Crous et al. 2015a, Hyde et al. 2016, Su et al. 2016, Li et al. 2017a). Crous et al. (2015a) accepted Dendryphion and Torula in this family based on phylogenetic relationships of Torulaceae. Currently, Dendryphion, Neotorula, Rostriconidium, Rutola, Sporidesmioides and Torula are accommodated in Torulaceae (Hyde et al. 2016, Li et al. 2016b, Su et al. 2016, Crous et al. 2019c).