Paralophiostomataceae V.V. Sarma & M. Niranjan. fam. nov.
MycoBank number: MB 551362; IndexFungorum: IF 551362; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06621, 1 species.
Etymology – With reference to a resemblance to Lophiostomataceae.
Saprobic on dead and decaying twigs. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecoid, scattered, carbonaceous, subglobose, immersed, clypeate, apical long slit-like ostiole, periphysate. Peridium thick with several layers of textura angularis cells. Hamathecium comprising numerous, filamentous, septate, branched, anastomosing pseudoparaphyses in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8- spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate to cylindrical, apically rounded with ocular chamber, long pedicellate. Ascospores overlapping 1-seriate, fusiform, hyaline to pale brown when young, brown to dark brown at maturity, 1-septate with a constriction when young, 3-septate with constrictions at maturity, central septum strongly constricted, uni-guttulate in each cell, obtuse ends with apical caps, each spore having one, supramedian cell, fully mature spores often splitting into part spores. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Type – Paralophiostoma V.V. Sarma & M. Niranjan.
Notes – Paralophiostomaceae resembles Lophiostomataceae, however, it differs from Lophiostomataceae in having wide hysteriothecoid necks in ascomata, cylindrical asci and ascospores that split into part-spores at maturity. Considering septation of ascospores of Lophiostomataceae, out of 24 genera, only 5 genera (Alpestrisphaeria, Guttulispora, Neopaucispora, Parapaucispora and Paucispora) produce 3-sepatate brown ascospores (Thambugala et al. 2015b, Wanasinghe et al. 2018c, Tennakoon et al. 2018b, Hashimoto et al. 2018a). However, they lack sheaths or appendages whereas the new taxon, Paralophiostomaceae produces prominent appendages and a thin (incipient) mucilaginous sheath. The new family also differs from Lophiotremataceae in having longer pedicellate asci and brown ascospores, which split into part spores at maturity. Taxa belonging to Aigialaceae, Ligninsphaeriaceae, Lophiostomataceae and Lophiotremataceae have ascomata with slit-like ostioles. Future studies are needed to confirm whether a sub-order Lophiostomatoideae could be raised to include all those families of Pleosporales. In our phylogenetic analysis (Figs. 1 and 42), Paralophiostomaceae forms a distinct family in Pleosporales. Thus, we introduce the new family Paralophiostomaceae based on the monotypic genus Paralophiostoma to be accommodated in Pleosporales.
Figure 1 – Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis (RAxML) of families of Dothideomycetes based on combined LSU, rpb-2, SSU and tef1 sequence data. Maximum likelihood bootstrap values equal or above 70 %, Bayesian posterior probabilities equal or above 0.90 (MLBS/PP) are given at the nodes. An original isolate number is noted after the species name. The tree is rooted to Orbilia auricolor (AFTOL-ID 906) and O. vinosa (AFTOL-ID 905). Hyphen (-) represents support values below 70 % MLBS and 0.90 PP.
Figure 42 – Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis (RAxML) of Pleosporales based on ITS, LSU, rpb-2, SSU and tef1 sequence data. Maximum likelihood bootstrap values equal or above 70 % are given at the nodes. An original isolate number is noted after the species name. The tree is rooted to Capnodium coffeae (CBS 147.52). The ex-type strains are indicated inb bold.