Cladosporiaceae Nann., Repert. mic. uomo: 404 (1934), MycoBank: MB 80600
Synonym: Davidiellaceae C.L. Schoch, Spatafora, Crous & Shoemaker, in Schoch, Shoemaker, Seifert, Hambleton,
Spatafora & Crous, Mycologia 98(6): 1048 (2007) , MycoBank: MB 504453
Saprobic or phytopathogenic, also endophytic and involved in diseases of humans and animals. Sexual state: Ascomata pseudothecial, gregarious or scattered, inconspicuous, black to red-brown, globose to subglobose, uniloculate, inconspicuous and immersed in the substratum to superficial, in plant pathogenic species beneath stromata, situated on a reduced stroma, with 1(−3) short, periphysate ostiolar necks; periphysoids frequently growing down into cavity. Ostiole necks, with numerous periphysoids. Peridium consisting of 3–6 layers of dark brown cells, usually textura angularis . Hamathecium of hyaline, septate, subcylindrical pseudoparaphyses, present in mature ascomata. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissituicate, sessile to short-stalked, obovoid to broadly ellipsoid or subcylindrical, straight to slightly curved. Ascospores bito multi-seriate, or overlapping, hyaline, obovoid to ellipsoid-fusiform, with irregular luminar inclusions, mostly thick-walled, straight to slightly curved; with age frequently becoming brown and verruculose in asci, 1-septate, not or somewhat constricted at the septum, at times covered by a mucilaginous sheath. Asexual state: hyphomycetous. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, simple or branched, brown. Conidiogenous cells integrated, terminal and intercalary, sympodial or synchronous, holoblastic, mostly polyblastic, conidiogenous loci conspicuous, mostly protuberant, darkened-refractive, coronate, i.e. composed of a convex central dome (which is the slightly bulging half of the original septum,
delimiting the conidium and the conidiogenous cell, after being cleft) and a raised periclinal rim. Conidia solitary or mostly in branched or unbranched acropetal chains, amero-, didymo- to phragmosporous, subhyaline to brown, smooth to verrucose or echinulate, sometimes forming ramoconidia, dry, conidium secession schizolytic (Schoch et al. 2006; Seifert et al. 2011; Bensch et al. 2012).
Notes: Schoch et al. (2006) introduced the new family Davidiellaceae in Capnodiales to accommodate Davidiella with its Cladosporium asexual morphs (type species Davidiella tassiana (De Not.) Crous & U. Braun, asexual state Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.: Fr.) Link,). Previously, Ellis (1971, 1976) and Sivanesan (1984) had reported Cladosporium as the asexual states of Mycosphaerella and placed the genus in Mycosphaerellaceae. Braun et al. (2003) clearly showed that Mycosphaerella sensu stricto and Cladosporium herbarum, the type of Cladosporium, belong to different phylogenetic lineages. At the same time they showed several “Mycosphaerella”-like sexual states grouped with C. herbarum that possessed ascomata which were very similar to Mycosphaerella sect. Tassiana. Hence they introduced the new genus Davidiella for “Mycosphaerella”-like sexual morphs connected to Cladosporium asexual morphs. This was confirmed by Schoch et al. (2006) who introduced the family Davidiellaceae. Previous concepts of Cladosporium had been very broad, covering a wide range of dematiaceous hyphomycetes with conidia formed in acropetal chains (Dugan et al. 2004). Braun et al. (2003) and Crous et al. (2007b) treated Cladosporium sensu stricto along with Davidiella, and discussed the circumscription of this genus and its delimitation from morphologically similar, often confused genera. Crous et al. (2007b) provided a key to cladosporioid genera, which is in slightly modified form also included in Seifert et al. (2011). Numerous “Cladosporium”-like species, previously referred to as Cladosporium sensu lato but not congeneric, belong elsewhere
and have been reallocated to different genera. For example, C. malorum Rühle (Pleosporales) was first moved to Alternaria (Braun et al. 2003) and later to Chalastospora (Crous et al. 2009b). Other cladosporoid fungi with unthickened, non-coronate conidiogenous loci, belonging to the Venturiaceae, represent Fusicladium asexual states of Venturia (Schubert et al. 2003; Crous et al. 2007b). Species of the genera Graphiopsis , Rachicladosporium,
Toxicocladosporium and Verrucocladosporium are morphologically cladosporioid, except for lacking coronate conidiogenous loci, but phylogenetically distinct. They cluster in adjacent position but do not belong to the Cladosporiaceae clade sensu stricto (Crous et al. 2007b: 36, Fig. 1). Based on the new ICN, Hawksworth (2012) proposed to use Cladosporium as holomorph genus as it is the oldest and most widely used name. Bensch et al. (2012), who published a comprehensive monograph of Cladosporium, also used the latter name in this sense and reintroduced the old family name Cladosporiaceae instead of Davidiellaceae. We also suggest using Cladosporiaceae hereafter, as it is older than Davidiellaceae and reflects the current use of Cladosporium as holomorph name. This family is homotypic, i.e. it comprises only the genus Cladosporium , including holomorphs with asexual hyphomycetous and their sexual “Davidiella” states and “Davidiella” teleo-holomorphs, without any asexual states and asexual states which may be ana-holomorphs.
Type : Cladosporium Link, Mag. Gesell. naturf. Freunde, Berlin7: 37. 1816 , MycoBank: MB 7681
Acrosporella Riedl & Ershad, Sydowia 29(1–6): 166 (1977) Davidiella Crous & U. Braun, in Braun et al., Mycol. Progr. 2(1): 8 (2003)
Notes : The genus Cladosporium was introduced by Link (1816)  and it is considered as one of the largest and most heterogeneous genera of hyphomycetes (Dugan et al. 2004), currently comprising 773 epithets (Index Fungorum 2013). Bensch et al. (2012) however, included 139 names of ‘‘Heterosporium’’ (reduced ‘‘Heterosporium’’ under Cladosporium) in their monograph of Cladosporium sensu lato. Hence the total number of epithets in Cladosporium sensu lato is 993 (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in ‘‘Heterosporium’’) (Bensch et al. 2012). Cladosporium sensu stricto (asexual state of ‘Davidiella’) is characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim (Bensch et al. 2012).
Type species : Cladosporium herbarum (Pers.) Link, in Willdenow, Willd., Sp. pl., Edn 4 6(1): 556 (1816), MycoBank: MB 231458
Other genera included
Acroconidiella J.C. Lindq. & Alippi, Darwiniana 13(2–4): 612 (1964)
Type species : Acroconidiella tropaeoli (T.E.T. Bond) J.C. Lindq. & Alippi, Darwiniana 13(2–4): 613 (1964)
Graphiopsis Trail, Scott., N.S. 4 (‘10’): 75 (1889) Type species: Phaeoisaria clematidis (Fuckel) S. Hughes, Can. J. Bot.36: 794 (1958)
Hoornsmania Crous, in Crous et al., Fungal Planet 11:  (2007)
Type species : Hoornsmania pyrina Crous, Fungal Planet 11–21: 11:  (2007)
Rachicladosporium Crous, U. Braun & C.F. Hill, in Crous et al., Stud. Mycol. 58: 38 (2007)
Type species : Rachicladosporium luculiae Crous, U. Braun & C.F. Hill, in Crous, Braun, Schubert & Groenewald, Stud. Mycol. 58: 39 (2007)
Toxicocladosporium Crous & U. Braun, in Crous, Braun, Schubert & Groenewald, Stud. Mycol. 58: 39 (2007)
Type species : Toxicocladosporium irritans Crous & U. Braun, in Crous, Braun, Schubert & Groenewald, Stud. Mycol.58: 39 (2007)
Verrucocladosporium K. Schub., Aptroot & Crous, in Crous, Braun, Schubert & Groenewald, Stud. Mycol. 58: 41 (2007)
Type species: Verrucocladosporium dirinae K. Schub., Aptroot & Crous, in Crous, Braun, Schubert & Groenewald, Stud. Mycol. 58: 41 (2007)