Capnodiaceae Höhn. ex Theiss., Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 66: 363 (1916).

MycoBank number: MB 91154; Index Fungorum number: IF 91154; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06943, 91 species

Saprobic on honey dew produced by insects, forming blackened thalli on leaves, stems, bark, and even rocks. Thallus comprises a black, superficial, mycelial network, covering the host surface. Mycelium composed of septate, cylindrical, brown, filamentous hyphae. Sexual morph: Ascomata superficial on mycelial mass, subglobose to globose, coriaceous, with or without setae, dark brown to black, with a central ostiole. Peridium relatively thin, comprising brown, cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium lacking pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, with a short pedicel, lacking an ocular chamber. Ascospores 2-seriate, hyaline to brown, multi-septate or muriform. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous. Conidiomata pycnidial, elongate, with short or long narrow necks, with or without a swollen part. Ostiole hyaline to pale brown, located at the neck apex. Conidia produced within the pycnidia in the swollen part, ellipsoidal, small, 1-celled, hyaline, with or without guttules.

TypeCapnodium Mont.

NotesCapnodiaceae was introduced by Höhnel (1909c) and validated by Theissen (1916) (von Arx & Müller 1975, Hughes 1976). Kirk et al. (2008) concluded that the family comprises 26 genera, while 13 genera were accepted by Lumbsch & Huhndorf (2010). Chomnunti et al. (2011, 2014) accepted only six genera based on the morphology of type specimens. Ariyawansa et al. (2015a) introduced Chaetocapnodium to this family based on morphology and phylogeny. Bose et al. (2014) synonymized Phragmocapnias under Conidiocarpus. There are some rock-inhabiting taxa included within Capnodiaceae such as rock-isolate TRN87.

Aithaloderma was included in Capnodiaceae (Sydow & Sydow 1913a, Reynolds & Gilbert 2005, Wijayawardene et al. 2017a). We do not accept Aithaloderma in this family following Chomnunti et al. (2011) who studied the isotype specimen of Aithaloderma clavatisporum and concluded that Aithaloderma are similar to those found in Chaetothyriaceae. Plurispermiopsis was referred to Capnodiaceae by Wijayawardene et al. (2017a). However, we treat Plurispermiopsis as genus incertae sedis in Capnodiales based on its glabrous ascomata containing asci with up to 64 hyaline, short appendiculate, 1–2–(rarely 3)-septate ascospores (Pereira-Carvalho et al. 2010). Therefore, Capnodiaceae comprises Chaetocapnodium, Capnodium, Conidiocarpus, Fumiglobus, Leptoxyphium, Limaciniaseta, Readerielliopsis, Scoriadopsis and Scorias.

Most of the species in Capnodiaceae are sooty moulds, forming hyphal networks that cover the surface of hosts. Based on the MCC tree in this study, we found that Capnodiaceae diverged as a first group from a common ancestor of Capnodiales and most of its members are saprobic. However, more collections of both rock-inhabiting fungi and saprobes of Capnodiaceae are needed to confirm the evolutionary history of a few extremotolerant taxa in the early divergence. It is possible that sooty moulds evolved in association with insects first, and later evolved into rock inhabiting taxa. The plant feeding insects would have dropped their honey dews onto the rocks Capnodium is the type genus of Capnodiaceae, and it was established by Montagne (1849) based on Fumago citri (Friend 1965). Capnodium is the sexual morph of Polychaeton, thus Capnodium was selected for conservation under the “1F1N” by Chomnunti et al. (2011). There are little sequence data for Capnodium species available in GenBank. More collections and sequence data are needed.