Capnodiaceae Höhn. ex Theiss., Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 66: 363 (1916), MycoBank: MB 82008

Saprobic on honey dew excretions from insects, usually forming blackened sooty-like regions on green healthy leaves, stems, bark and even rocks and often in association with numerous other species and fungicolous taxa. Thallus comprising mycelium with black sooty growth on the host surface, producing superficial colonies with septate, cylindrical, brown hyphae. Sexual state: Ascomata arise from the mycelial mass, subglobose to globose, coriaceous, with or without setae, dark brown, with a central ostiole. Peridium brown, relatively thin, comprising cells of textura angularis . Hamathecium lacking pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, saccate, with a short pedicel, lacking an ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping bi-seriate, multi-septate or muriform, hyaline to brown. Asexual states: pycnidial, mostly elongated, with short or long narrow necks, and with or without a swelling where the conidia are produced. Ostiole prominent at the apex of the pycnidial neck. Conidia occur on typical capnodiaceous hyphae within the pycnidia, small, one-celled, ellipsoidal, hyaline.
Notes : The family Capnodiaceae was introduced by von Höhnel (1909a) and validated by Theissen (1916) according
to von Arx and Müller (1975) and Hughes (1976), and is circumscribed as dothideomycetous sooty moulds with mostly pycnidial asexual states (Reynolds 1982). Kirk et al. (2008) stated the Capnodiaceae include 26 genera and 117 species, while Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010) mentioned 13 genera. Chomnunti et al. (2011) revisited the Capnodiaceae and removed many genera to other families based on morphological characters of type specimens, thus only five genera are now accepted in Capnodiaceae. The taxa of this family can be recognized by black mycelial growth spreading on the host surface which produces superficial colonies with septate, cylindrical, dark-brown hyphae. Ascomata arise from the mycelial mass and are subglobose to globose (Sivanesan 1984; Barr 1987a). Their asexual states form elongated pycnidia that develop from a superficial mycelium on living plant surfaces. Pycnidia have short or long narrow necks with a conspicuous oval swelling which produce minute, unicellular and hyaline conidia from near the base, middle or apex (Chomnunti et al. 2011).
In the past some members of the family had been known only from asexual states, and these pycnidia had been assigned to one or other sexual state genera and families depending on whether the researchers gave more emphasis to Saccardoan generic concepts such as spore morphology and colour, or colony hyphal development, hyphal morphology and ascomatal and pycnidial formation (as with Hughes 1976). The use of molecular techniques has now enabled us to confirm their relationships in the Capnodiaceae. Crous et al. (2009b) used molecular methods to evaluate the monophyly of the order Capnodiales , yet they did not discuss the family in detail, although concluding that it probably contained diverse lineages. Chomnunti et al. (2011) used a RAxML maximum likelihood tree based on combined LSU and SSU genes to show that Capnodium, Leptoxyphium, Phragmocapnias and Scorias are resolved genera in Capnodiaceae.

Type : Capnodium Mont. Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 311: 233 (1849), MycoBank: MB 809 Figs. 25 and 26