Neoantrodiellaceae Y.C. Dai, B.K. Cui, Jia J. Chen & H.S. Yuan

Index Fungorum number: IF551497 Facesoffungi number: FoF1011

Habitat: grows on gymnosperm wood, including dead trees, fallen trunks and rotten wood, causes a white rot. Basidiocarps annual to perennial, resupinate, effusedreflexed or pileate with smooth to poroid hymenophores, soft corky to hard corky, white, cream or pink. Hyphal system monomitic to dimitic; generative hyphae bearing clamp connections; skeletal hyphae thick-walled, cyanophilous; cystidia present in most species; basidiospores cylindrical, allantoid or ellipsoid, thin-walled, hyaline, smooth, indextrinoid, acyanophilous.

Type genus: Neoantrodiella Y.C. Dai, B.K. Cui, Jia J. Chen & H.S. Yuan

Notes: The family Neoantrodiellaceae is established to accommodate the genera Neoantrodiella Y.C. Dai et al., Cyanotrama Ghob.-Nejh. & Y.C. Dai, Poriodontia Parmasto and Fibricium J. Erikss, in the order Hymenochaetales, Agaricomycetes based on its distinct lineage in the phylogenetic analysis. The combined phylogeny of ITS, nLSU, RPB2 and mtSSU gene data demonstrate that Neoantrodiella show no affinity to the other orders of Agaricomycetes. The sampled specimens of Neoantrodiella clustered in the Hymenochaetales clade and formed a well-supported lineage. According to the ITS and nLSU rDNA-based phylogeny, Neoantrodiellaceae (including Neoantrodiella, Cyanotrama, Poriodontia and Fibricium) grouped close to Hyphodontia in the Kneiffella family, but formed a distinct clade with moderate support (73% MP and 0.93 BPPs) within the order Hymenochaetales. Previously, Neoantrodiella (including Antrodiella gypsea and A. thujae) was included in Phanerochaetaceae, Polyporales (Hattori and Ryvarden 1994; Kirk et al. 2008; Dai and Yuan 2007; Dai 2012); Cyanotrama was included in Hymenochaetales without existed family (Ghobad-Nejhad and Dai 2010), Fibricium was included in Corticiaceae, Corticiales (Jülich 1974); and Poriodontia was included in Schizoporaceae, Hymenochaetales (Kirk et al. 2008). However, recent studies (Ghobad-Nejhad and Dai 2010; Miettinen and Larsson 2011; Yuan 2014) and our current phylogenetic analyses showed these four genera are included in an unknown family. Thus, the new family Neoantrodiellaceae is established. Cyanotrama is similar to Neoantrodiella in morphology, so Neoantrodiella gypsea and N. thujae were combined as Cyanotrama gypsea (Yasuda) Miettinen and C. thujae (Y.C. Dai & H.S. Yuan) Miettinen & Y.C. Dai (Miettinen 2011). However, these two genera formed two well-supported lineages in the ITS and nLSU rDNAbased phylogeny, respectively. Antrodiella Ryvarden & I. Johans. was described by Ryvarden and Johansen (1980) to comprise the so-called Polyporus semisupinus Berk. & M.A. Curtis complex (Ryvarden 1991). At present there are about 50 species in Antrodiella, either transferred from other genera or described as new species in the genus (Dai 2012; Miettinen et al. 2012; Ryvarden and Melo 2014; Yuan 2014). However, molecular studies showed that species of Antrodiella are polyphyletic and most species in the genus, including the type species belong to Polyporales (Miettinen et al. 2012; Yuan 2014). But in our study, Antrodiella gypsea and A. thujae phylogenetically are distinctly distant from species in the Polyporales, and both species belong to Hymenochaetales. It is necessary to set up the new genus and family to accommodate them. So the above new genus, family and combinations are proposed. In the current study, we resolve the placement of Fibricium, Neoantrodiella, Cyanotrama and Poriodontia. The combined ITS, nLSU, RPB2 and mtSSU sequence dataset was used for order placement. The combined ITS and nLSU sequence dataset was used for family placement. The new sequences were generated for this study, and other reference sequences were obtained from GenBank (Ghobad-Nejhad and Dai 2010; Miettinen and Larsson 2011).