Togniniales Senan., Maharachch. & K.D. Hyde, Fungal Divers. 72: 220 (2015)

MycoBank number: MB 551049; Index Fungorum number: IF 551049; Facesoffungi number: FoF 00592;

Togniniales comprises a single family Togniniaceae based on phylogenetic analyses and it is similar to some members of Calosphaeriaceae in having perithecial ascomata and clavate, tiny asci with hyaline ascogenous hyphae and cylindrical to allantoid ascospores (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, Réblová et al. 2015b). Togniniaceae was placed in Diaporthales based on SSU and LSU gene analyses (Mostert et al. 2006). However, multi-gene analyses showed that Togniniales as an independent clade with Diaporthales and Calosphaeriales (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, 2016b, Réblová et al. 2015b, Huang et al. 2019). Species of this order have a worldwide distribution and are well-known pathogens of plants and animals (Rooney-Latham et al. 2005, Hoffmann & Voigt 2011, Kredics et al. 2011, Huang et al. 2018). The divergence time for Togniniales is estimated as 138 MYA (Fig. 2). Currently there is one family and two genera in this order (this paper).

Figure 2 – The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree, using the same dataset from Fig. 1. This analysis was performed in BEAST v1.10.2. The crown age of Sordariomycetes was set with Normal distribution, mean = 250, SD = 30, with 97.5% of CI = 308.8 MYA, and crown age of Dothideomycetes with Normal distribution mean = 360, SD = 20, with 97.5% of CI = 399 MYA. The substitution models were selected based on jModeltest2.1.1; GTR+I+G for LSU, rpb2 and SSU, and TrN+I+G for tef1 (the model TrN is not available in BEAUti 1.10.2, thus we used TN93). Lognormal distribution of rates was used during the analyses with uncorrelated relaxed clock model. The Yule process tree prior was used to model the speciation of nodes in the topology with a randomly generated starting tree. The analyses were performed for 100 million generations, with sampling parameters every 10000 generations. The effective sample sizes were checked in Tracer v.1.6 and the acceptable values are higher than 200. The first 20% representing the burn-in phase were discarded and the remaining trees were combined in LogCombiner 1.10.2., summarized data and estimated in TreeAnnotator 1.10.2. Bars correspond to the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals. The scale axis shows divergence times as millions of years ago (MYA).

Figure 2 – Continued.

Figure 2 – Continued.