Phomatosporales Senan., Maharachch. & K.D. Hyde, Mycosphere 7(5): 631 (2016)
MycoBank number: MB 552311; Index Fungorum number: IF 552311; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02485;
Phomatosporales comprises Phomatospora, Lanspora and Tenuimurus (Senanayake et al. 2016). Phomatospora and Lanspora cluster together with statistical support of 86% ML and 0.97 PP, while Tenuimurus forms a clade with the other two genera with good support (100% ML, 1.00 PP) (Fig. 20). Phomatosporales contains the single family Phomatosporaceae (Senanayake et al. 2016). The divergence time for Phomatosporales is estimated as 91 MYA (Fig. 2), which falls in the range of family status. Its status may need revision following further study. Currently there is one family and three genera in this order (this paper).
Figure 2 – The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree, using the same dataset from Fig. 1. This analysis was performed in BEAST v1.10.2. The crown age of Sordariomycetes was set with Normal distribution, mean = 250, SD = 30, with 97.5% of CI = 308.8 MYA, and crown age of Dothideomycetes with Normal distribution mean = 360, SD = 20, with 97.5% of CI = 399 MYA. The substitution models were selected based on jModeltest2.1.1; GTR+I+G for LSU, rpb2 and SSU, and TrN+I+G for tef1 (the model TrN is not available in BEAUti 1.10.2, thus we used TN93). Lognormal distribution of rates was used during the analyses with uncorrelated relaxed clock model. The Yule process tree prior was used to model the speciation of nodes in the topology with a randomly generated starting tree. The analyses were performed for 100 million generations, with sampling parameters every 10000 generations. The effective sample sizes were checked in Tracer v.1.6 and the acceptable values are higher than 200. The first 20% representing the burn-in phase were discarded and the remaining trees were combined in LogCombiner 1.10.2., summarized data and estimated in TreeAnnotator 1.10.2. Bars correspond to the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals. The scale axis shows divergence times as millions of years ago (MYA).
Figure 20 – Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, SSU ITS and tub2 sequence data of Ophiostomatales and Phomatosporales. Sixty-six strains are included in the combined analyses which comprised 2897 characters (584 characters for LSU, 985 characters for SSU, 737 characters for ITS, 591 characters for tub2) after alignment. Ophioceras dolichostomum (CBS 114926) (Ophioceraceae, Magnaporthales) and Nakataea oryzae (ATCC 44754) (Magnaporthaceae, Magnaporthales) are used as outgroup taxa. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of – 21546.866789 is presented. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.213168, C = 0.292921, G = 0.285293, T = 0.208619; substitution rates AC = 1.227359, AG = 2.074779, AT = 1.607139, CG = 1.020705, CT = 4.744232, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter a = 0.294947. Bootstrap support values for ML greater than 70% and Bayesian posterior probabilities greater than 0.90 are given near the nodes. Ex-type strains are in bold.