Cylindroseptoria Quaedvlieg et al., Stud. Mycol. 75: 358 (2013).
Type species: Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg et al., Stud. Mycol. 75: 358 (2013)
Notes: Cylindroseptoria was introduced by Quaedvlieg et al. (2013) and typified with C. ceratoniae. Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae is characterized by separate, brown, cupulate, short-stipitate conidiomata; a rim with elongated brown, thick-walled cells with obtuse ends, 3–4 wall layers of medium brown cells of textura angularis, becoming hyaline towards inner region, hyaline, smooth, ampulliform conidiogenous cells with prominent periclinal thickening and solitary, hyaline, smooth, granular or not, aseptate, cylindrical conidia with obtuse apex. Quaedvlieg et al. (2013) tentatively placed a new species C. pistaciae in Cylindroseptoria, as it has pycnidial rather than cupulate conidiomata. Multigene phylogenetic analysis of Quaedvlieg et al. (2013) showed that Cylindroseptoria belongs to Dothideaceae. However, the two species clustered in separate clades in the family Dothideaceae in our phylogenetic study. Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae grouped as sister clade to the Coleophoma while, C. pistaciae clustered separately with 98/ 100 % bootstrap support in Dothideaceae. Therefore, we introduce a new genus, Neocylindroseptoria, for C. pistaciae.