[as ‘Botryosphaeriacae’], Annls mycol. 16(1/2): 16 (1918), MycoBank MB 80530

Biotrophic, necrotrophic and saprobic especially on wood in terrestrial habitats. Sexual state: Ascostromata uni- to multi-locular, with multi-layered walls, single or in clusters, with or without basal stroma, fully or partially erumpent at maturity. Hamathecium of hypha-like, branched or unbranched, septate pseudoparaphyses, which are constricted at the septum, frequently disappearing at maturity. Asci mostly 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, with thick endotunica, clavate to cylindro-clavate, short or long-pedicellate, apically rounded with an ocular chamber. Ascospores 2–3-seriate, hyaline to brown, smooth to verruculose, thin-walled, aseptate to septate, fusoid to ellipsoid or ovoid, with or without a mucoid sheath or rarely with appendages. Asexual states: Conidiomata uni- to multi-locular, pycnidial, frequently embedded in stromatic tissue, with hyaline, phialidic conidiogenous cells. Conidia hyaline to pigmented, thin- to thick-walled, sometimes with mucoid appendages or sheaths, smooth to verruculose, sometimes striate, with or without germ slits.

Notes : The family Botryosphaeriaceae was introduced by Theissen and Sydow (1918) in Botryosphaeriales (Schoch et al. 2006). Hibbett et al. (2007) did not assign the Botryosphaeriales to any subclass, but Schoch et al. (2009a) accepted its position in the Pleosporomycetidae. Previously the family had been referred to various orders: Myrangiales (Theissen 1916), Dothideales (Miller 1928; Kirk et al. 2001), and Pseudosphaeriales/Pleosporales (Luttrell 1955). The family is well-defined morphologically and supported by molecular data, with a number of lineages strongly corresponding to asexual morphological genera, e.g. Diplodia, Fusicoccum, and Lasiodiplodia (Schoch et al. 2009a; Liu et al. 2012a). Species are widespread in the tropics and temperate zones, some are forest pathogens, and some may be host-specific, while generally they are saprobic or endophytic. They also cause important diseases in forestry and agriculture (e.g. on grape-vines, van Niekerk et al. 2004). Liu et al. (2012a) accepted 29 genera in the Botryosphaeriales and molecular data showed the clade for the family Botryosphaeriaceae comprising eight sub-clades corresponding to: A1 Diplodia, Neodeightonia and Lasiodiplodia; A2 Phaeobotryosphaeria, Phaeobotryon and Barriopsis; A3 Dothiorella , Spencermartinsia and Auerswaldia; A4 Botryobambusa; A5 Neofusicoccum; A6 Botryosphaeria including the type species of the genus, Neoscytalidium and Cophinforma (a new genus); A7 Pseudofusicocoum; and A8 Aplosporella (Liu et al. 2012a).

Type genus

  • Type: Botryosphaeria Ces. & De Not., Comm. Soc. crittog. Ital.1(4): 211 (1863), MycoBank MB 635

Other genera included

  • Aplosporella Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 10(5–6): 157 (1880)
    Type species: Aplosporella chlorostroma Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 10(5–6): 158

  • Auerswaldia Sacc., Syll. Fung. (Abellini) 2: 626 (1883)
    Type species : Auerswaldia examinans (Mont. & Berk.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 266 (1883)
  • Auerswaldiella Theiss. & Syd., Ann. mycol. 12(3): 278 (1914)
    Type species : Auerswaldiella puccinioides (Speg.) Theiss. & Syd., Ann. mycol. 12(3): 278 (1914)

  • Barriopsis A.J.L. Phillips et al., Persoonia 21: 39 (2008)
    Type species : Barriopsis fusca (N.E. Stevens) A.J.L.Phillips et al., Persoonia 21: 39 (2008)

  • Botryobambusa R. Phookamsak et al., Fungal Divers. 57:166 (2012)
    Type species : Botryobambusa fusicoccum R. Phookamsak et al., Fungal Divers. 57: 166 (2012)

  • Cophinforma Doilom, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde, in Liu et al.Fungal Divers. 57: 174 (2012)
    Type species : Cophinforma eucalyptus Doilom, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde, in Liu et al. Fungal Divers. 57: 174 (2012)

  • Dichomera Cooke, Nuovo G. bot. ital. 10: 24 (1878)
    Type species : Dichomera saubinetii (Mont.) Cooke, Nuovo G. bot. ital. 10: 24 (1878)

  • Diplodia Fr., in Montagne, Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2 1: 302 (1834)
    Type species: Diplodia mutila (Fr.) Mon., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2 1: 302 (1834)

  • Dothiorella Sacc., Michelia 2 (no. 6): 5 (1880)
    Type species : Dothiorella pyrenophora Berk. ex Sacc., Michelia 2 (no. 6): 5 (1880)

  • Endomelanconiopsis E.I. Rojas&Samuels, in Rojas et al., Mycologia 100 (5): 770 (2008)                                                                                                                                  Type species : Endomelanconiopsis endophytica E.I. Rojas & Samuels, in Rojas et al., Mycologia 100 (5): 770 (2008)

  • Lasiodiplodia Ellis & Everh., Bot. Gaz. 21: 92 (1896)
     Type species : Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl., Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 25: 57(1909)

  • Macrophomina Petr., Annls. mycol. 21(3/4): 314 (1923)
     Type species : Macrophomina phaselina (Tassi) Gorf.,Annali Sper. agr.n.s. 1: 457 (1947)

  • Microdiplodia Allesch., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 1(7): 78 (1901) [1903] Type species : Microdiplodia conigena Allesch., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 1(7): 79 (1901) [1903]

  • Macrovalsaria Petr., Sydowia 15: 298 (1962) [1961] Type species : Macrovalsaria leonensis (Deighton) Petr., Sydowia 15(1–6): 298 (1962) [1961]

  • Neodeightonia C. Booth, in Punithalingam, Mycol. Pap. 119: 17 (1970) [1969], MycoBank MB 3450
    Type species : Neodeightonia subglobosa C. Booth, in Punithalingam, Mycol. Pap. 119: 19 (1970) [1969]

  • Neofusicoccum Crous et al., Stud. Mycol. 55: 247 (2006)
    Type species : Neofusicoccum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels) Crous et al., Stud. Mycol. 55: 248 (2006)

  • Neoscytalidium Crous & Slippers, Stud. Mycol. 55: 244 (2006)
    Type species : Neoscytalidium dimidiatum Crous & Slippers, Stud. Mycol. 55: 244 (2006)

  • Phaeobotryon Theiss. & Syd., Ann. Mycol. 13 (5/6): 664 (1915)
    Type species : Phaeobotryon cercidis (Cooke) Theiss. & Syd., Annls. mycol. 13: 664. 1915

  • Phaeobotryosphaeria Speg., Anal. Mus. nac. B. Aires, Ser. 3 17(10): 120 (1908)
    Type species : Phaeobotryosphaeria yerbae Speg., Anal. Mus. nac. B. Aires, Ser. 317(10): 120(1908)

  • Phyllachorella Syd., Annls. mycol. 12: 489 (1914)
    Type species : Phyllachorella micheliae Syd., Annls. mycol. 12(5): 489 (1914)

  • Pseudofusicoccum Mohali et al., Stud. Mycol. 55: 249 (2006)
    Type species : Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum (Mohali et al.) Mohali et al., Stud. Mycol.55: 249 (2006)

  • Pyrenostigma. Syd., Annls. mycol. 24: 370 (1926)
    Type species : Pyrenostigma siparunae Syd., Annls. mycol.24: 370 (1926)

  • Sivanesania W.H. Hsieh & Chi Y. Chen, Mycol. Res. 98 (1): 44 (1994)
    Type species : Sivanesania rubi W.H. Hsieh & Chi Y. Chen, Mycol. Res. 100(9): 1106 (1996)

  • Spencermartinsia A.J.L. Phillips et al., Persoonia 21: 51 (2008)
    Type species : Spencermartinsia viticola (A.J.L. Phillips & J. Luque) A.J.L. Phillips et al., Persoonia 21: 51 (2008)

  • Tiarosporella Höhn., in Weese, Mitt. bot. Inst. tech. Hochsch. Wien 1 (3): 82 (1924)
    Type species : Tiarosporella paludosa (Sacc. & Fiori ex P. Syd.) Höhn., in Weese, Mitt. bot. Inst. tech. Hochsch. Wien 1 (3): 82 (1924)

  • Thyrostroma Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw.Kl., Abt. 1 120: 472 [94 repr.] (1911)
    Type species: Thyrostroma compactum (Sacc.) Höhn.,Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 120: 472 [94 repr.] (1911)

  • Vestergrenia Rehm, Hedwigia 40: 100 (1901)
    Type species : Vestergrenia nervisequia Rehm, Hedwigia 40: 101 (1901)