Botryosphaeria Ces. & De Not., Comm. Soc. crittog. Ital.1(4): 211 (1863), MycoBank MB 635

Hemibiotrophic or saprobic on leaves and wood in terrestrial habitats. Sexual state: Ascostromata erumpent through the bark, often forminga botryose aggregate, sometimes solitary, globose, brown to black, individual locules with a central ostiole, papillate or not. Peridium two-layered, outer layer composed of dark brown or brown, thick-walled cells of textura angularis, inner layer composed of hyaline, thin-walled cells of textura angularis, lining the locule. Hamathecium comprising numerous, 2–4 μm wide, septate, hypha-like pseudoparaphyses, rarely branched at the apex. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate, short pedicellate, apically rounded with a small ocular chamber. Ascospores bi-seriate, hyaline, aseptate, fusoid to ovoid, sometimes with tapered ends, giving a spindle-shaped appearance, smooth with granular contents, with or without a mucilaginous sheath. Asexual states: Conidiomata pycnidial in nature. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, hyaline, subcylindrical, proliferating percurrently with 1–2 proliferations and periclinical thickening. Conidia hyaline, aseptate, narrowly fusiform, or irregularly fusiform, base subtruncate to bluntly rounded, rarely forming a septum before germination, smooth with granular contents (asexual morph description follows Slippers et al. 2004).
Notes : The genus Botryosphaeria was introduced in 1863 and emended by Saccardo (1877) and is based on the type species B. dothidea (Moug.: Fr.) Ces. & de Not. However, as the type material was immature, Slippers et al. (2004) epitypified the type species Botryosphaeria dothidea based on morphology and phylogenetic data. Species of Botryosphaeriaceae occur on woody branches, herbaceous leaves, stems, and twigs of a wide range of plants (monocotyledons, dicotyledons and gymnosperms) and have a cosmopolitan distribution (Crous et al. 2006). Species are frequently associated with dieback and cankers of woody tissues and other plant diseases. Botryosphaeria is characterized by ascostromata, bitunicate asci with a thick endotunica, stalked or sessile, clavate with a well-developed apical chamber, with hyaline pseudoparaphyses, constricted at the septa, and aseptate, hyaline ascospores, fusoid to ellipsoid or ovoid, generally lacking mucoid sheaths or appendages. Botryosphaeria asexual morphs have been assigned to some 18 coelomycete genera based on molecular data (Crous et al. 2006; Liu et al. 2012a; Wijayawardene et al. 2012).

Type species : Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug: Fr.) Ces. & de Not., Comment Soc. crittog. Ital. 1: 212 (1863)
Sphaeria dothidea Moug., in Fries, Syst. mycol. (Lundae) 2(2): 423 (1823)