Trichoderma Pers., Neues Mag. Bot. 1: 92 (1794)
MycoBank number: MB 10282; Index Fungorum number: IF 10282; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02075; 378 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 318 species with sequence data.
Type species – Trichoderma viride Pers.
Notes – Trichoderma is typified by T. viride (Persoon 1794). Trichoderma species are associated with decaying woody substrates and other fungi (Rossman et al. 1999, Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2015). Barrasa et al. (1985) introduced the monotypic genus Aphysiostroma based on coprophilous taxon, A. stercorarium. However this genus was synonymized under Trichoderma by Jaklitsch & Voglmayr (2015) based on DNA sequence data. Doi (1972) introduced Pseudohypocrea to accommodate Hypocrea citrinella. Pseudohypocrea species occur mainly on decaying wood, bark and dead leaves (Zhu & Zhuang 2014). However, based on morphological and molecular data Pseudohypocrea was synonymised under Trichoderma by Zeng & Zhuang (2017). Trichoderma erinaceum is illustrated in this entry (Fig. 121).
Figure 121 – Trichoderma erinaceum (Material examined – INDIA, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Andaman, Diglipur, Nabagram (13˚13’18.1”N 92˚55’59.3”E), found on Baccaurea ramiflora decaying twig, 17 May 2018, M. Niranjan & V.V. Sarma, AMH-10060; living culture, NFCCI-4431; INDIA, South Andaman, Port Blair, Wright Mayo (11˚47’39” N 92˚42’36”E), on Pterocarpus dalbergioides, 22 October 2015, T38F5, T39F2, T52F2, isotypes; INDIA, Mannarghat (11˚43’14” N 92˚39’33”E), on Pterocarpus dalbergioides, 04 January 2017, Niranjan. M & Sarma. V.V., T184F1, T193Fl). a, b Stromata on host. c, d Vertical section of ascoma. e, f Asci. g, h Culture (NFCCI-4431) on malt extract agar plates (g-from above, h-reverse). Scale bars: c = 50 μm, d = 20 μm, e, f = 10 μm.
Figure 122 – Trichoderma viride (Material examined – CZECH REPUBLIC, South Bohemia, Frymburk, on partly decorticated logs of Pinus sylvestris L., leg. W. Jaklitsch, W.J. 2753, 3 October 2004, WU 24013, epitype). a Herbarium material. b Stromata on host substrate. c, d Transverse sections through stromata with perithecia. e Peridium in section. f Ostiole in transvers section. g-i Asci (i in Melzer’s reagent). j Hair on surface of stroma. k-n Ascospores. Scale bars: b = 2 mm, c = 200 µm, d = 100 µm, e, f = 50 µm, g-j = 20 µm, k-n = 5 µm.