Trichoderma Pers., Neues Mag. Bot. 1: 92 (1794)

MycoBank number: MB 10282; Index Fungorum number: IF 10282; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02075; 378 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 318 species with sequence data.

Type speciesTrichoderma viride Pers.

NotesTrichoderma is typified by T. viride (Persoon 1794). Trichoderma species are associated with decaying woody substrates and other fungi (Rossman et al. 1999, Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2015). Barrasa et al. (1985) introduced the monotypic genus Aphysiostroma based on coprophilous taxon, A. stercorarium. However this genus was synonymized under Trichoderma by Jaklitsch & Voglmayr (2015) based on DNA sequence data. Doi (1972) introduced Pseudohypocrea to accommodate Hypocrea citrinella. Pseudohypocrea species occur mainly on decaying wood, bark and dead leaves (Zhu & Zhuang 2014). However, based on morphological and molecular data Pseudohypocrea was synonymised under Trichoderma by Zeng & Zhuang (2017). Trichoderma erinaceum is illustrated in this entry (Fig. 121).

Figure 121 Trichoderma erinaceum (Material examined – INDIA, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Andaman, Diglipur, Nabagram (13˚13’18.1”N 92˚55’59.3”E), found on Baccaurea ramiflora decaying twig, 17 May 2018, M. Niranjan & V.V. Sarma, AMH-10060; living culture, NFCCI-4431; INDIA, South Andaman, Port Blair, Wright Mayo (11˚47’39” N 92˚42’36”E), on Pterocarpus dalbergioides, 22 October 2015, T38F5, T39F2, T52F2, isotypes; INDIA, Mannarghat (11˚43’14” N 92˚39’33”E), on Pterocarpus dalbergioides, 04 January 2017, Niranjan. M & Sarma. V.V., T184F1, T193Fl). a, b Stromata on host. c, d Vertical section of ascoma. e, f Asci. g, h Culture (NFCCI-4431) on malt extract agar plates (g-from above, h-reverse). Scale bars: c = 50 μm, d = 20 μm, e, f = 10 μm.

Figure 122 Trichoderma viride (Material examined – CZECH REPUBLIC, South Bohemia, Frymburk, on partly decorticated logs of Pinus sylvestris L., leg. W. Jaklitsch, W.J. 2753, 3 October 2004, WU 24013, epitype). a Herbarium material. b Stromata on host substrate. c, d Transverse sections through stromata with perithecia. e Peridium in section. f Ostiole in transvers section. g-i Asci (i in Melzer’s reagent). j Hair on surface of stroma. k-n Ascospores. Scale bars: b = 2 mm, c = 200 µm, d = 100 µm, e, f = 50 µm, g-j = 20 µm, k-n = 5 µm.