Pisorisporiomycetidae Bundhun, Maharachch. & K.D. Hyde, subclass nov.

MycoBank number: MB 556880; Index Fungorum number: IF 556880; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06688;

Saprobic on submerged wood or driftwood. Sexual morph: Ascomata astromatic, perithecial, solitary or aggregated in small groups, immersed, semi-immersed to superficial, ostiolate. Ostiole periphysate. Peridium 2-layered, leathery to fragile, partly carbonaceous. Paraphyses abundant,hyaline, persistent. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, pedicellate, persistent, with a J+ or J-, apical ring. Ascospores hyaline, multi-septate, often guttulate, lacking any mucilaginous sheath or appendages. Asexual morph: Undetermined.

Type order – Pisorisporiales Réblová & J. Fourn.

Notes – Pisorisporiales was reported to form a sister clade with Lulworthiales and Koralionastetales in Lulworthiomycetidae with a stem age of 266 MYA (Hongsanan et al. 2017, Hyde et al. 2017a). This is congruent to the results obtained in the present study (257 MYA). Since this stem age falls within the subclass status range (250–300 MYA), Pisorisporiomycetidae is proposed here as a new subclass. This subclass contains Pisorisporiales, family Pisorisporiaceae and the two genera Achroceratosphaeria and Pisorisporium (Réblová et al. 2015a).

Divergence times of lineages were used to analyze the status of higher ranks of fungi (Hongsanan et al. 2017, 2018, Hyde et al. 2017, Liu et al. 2017). Hyde et al. (2017) provided a maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree of families in Sordariomycetes and also proposed a series of evolutionary periods that could be used as a guide to define ranking of fungi in Sordariomycetes. In our paper, we provide the MCC tree base on updated classification of Sordariomycetes (Fig. 2). The same dataset as in Fig. 1 was used in our molecular clock analysis to compare the phylogenetic placement generated from both approaches. We use divergence time to confirm familial status of families in Sordariomycetes according to the guidance of Hyde et al. (2017). Some families and orders are not supported by divergence times, but their status is retained due to their unique characters or lack of species (notes are provided in each family).

Figure 1 – Maximum likelihood (ML) majority rule combined LSU, SSU, tef1 and rpb2 consensus tree for the analyzed Sordariomycetes isolates. Families are indicated in yellow and green coloured blocks and orders are indicated in dark and light grey coloured blocks. RAxML bootstrap support values (MLB above 50 %) are given at the nodes. The scale bar represents the expected number of changes per site. The tree is rooted with Botryotinia fuckeliana (AFTOL ID-59), Dothidea sambuci (DAOM 231303), and Pyxidiophora arvernensis (AFTOL-ID 2197).

Figure 1 – Continued.

Figure 1 – Continued.

Figure 2 – The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree, using the same dataset from Fig. 1. This analysis was performed in BEAST v1.10.2. The crown age of Sordariomycetes was set with Normal distribution, mean = 250, SD = 30, with 97.5% of CI = 308.8 MYA, and crown age of Dothideomycetes with Normal distribution mean = 360, SD = 20, with 97.5% of CI = 399 MYA. The substitution models were selected based on jModeltest2.1.1; GTR+I+G for LSU, rpb2 and SSU, and TrN+I+G for tef1 (the model TrN is not available in BEAUti 1.10.2, thus we used TN93). Lognormal distribution of rates was used during the analyses with uncorrelated relaxed clock model. The Yule process tree prior was used to model the speciation of nodes in the topology with a randomly generated starting tree. The analyses were performed for 100 million generations, with sampling parameters every 10000 generations. The effective sample sizes were checked in Tracer v.1.6 and the acceptable values are higher than 200. The first 20% representing the burn-in phase were discarded and the remaining trees were combined in LogCombiner 1.10.2., summarized data and estimated in TreeAnnotator 1.10.2. Bars correspond to the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals. The scale axis shows divergence times as millions of years ago (MYA).

Figure 2 – Continued.

Figure 2 – Continued.


Pisorisporiales genus incertae sedis