Helotiaceae Rehm [as ‘Helotieae’], Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 1.3(lief. 37), 647 (1892) [1896]

= Roesleriaceae Y.J. Yao & Spooner

Index Fungorum number: IF 80845; Facesoffungi number: FoF 05896

Taxa are saprobic, endophytic or plant parasitic. Ascomata are apothecial and characterized by sessile or stipitate, cupulate, discoid, capitate to clavate, turbinate or globose receptacle. The margins and flanks are smooth or covered with hairs and hairs are brownish, smooth and septate or aseptate. The ectal excipulum is composed of cells of hyaline, rarely brown textura prismatica, textura intricata, textura globulosaangularis, or textura oblita and medullary excipulum is composed of cells of textura intricata or textura porrecta. Paraphyses are sometimes absent and when present, they are cylindrical, septate or aseptate, hyaline to yellowish and guttulate. Asci are 4–8-spored, cylindric-clavate, amyloid or non-amyloid and sometimes arising from croziers. Asci are rarely opening by splitting or evanescent. Ascospores are ellipsoid, fusoid or filiform, 1–3-septate and rarely ornamented (Reid 1986, Sydow 1924, Jaklitsch et al. 2016, Zheng & Zhuang 2015, 2016, Chlebická & Konvalinková 2010, Yao & Spooner 1999, Johnston et al. 2014, Spooner 1987, Chlebická & Chlebicki 2007). Asexual morphs are hyphomycetous, sporodochial or synnematal. Macroconidia are holoblastic, hyaline, filiform or staurosporous, dark brown, in chains, bulbils or solitary on conidiophores and 3–5-septate. Microconidia are phialidic, rarely pigmented, multicellular and appendaged (Peláez et al. 2011, Jaklitsch et al. 2016).

Notes – This is one of the largest family of Leotiomycetes and phylogenetically highly controversial. Considering phylogenetic relationships according to the present study, the genera Endoscypha, Torrendiella, Roesleria, Lanzia, Glarea, Crocicreas, Ombrophila, Amylocarpus and Pirottaea which were phylogenetically unstable, clustered within Helotiaceae. Previous literature also showed the genetic relatedness of these genera within Helotiaceae, i.e. the hyphomycete genus Glarea clustered within Helotiaceae in the phylogeny of Peláez et al. (2011) and Johnston et al. (2014) showed the phylogenetic placement of the genera Cyathicula, Torrendiella, Roesleria, Glarea within Helotiaceae. Therefore, considering the result of our phylogenetic analysis and previous literature, in this treatment we placed these genera (Endoscypha, Torrendiella, Roesleria, Lanzia, Glarea, Crocicreas, Ombrophila, Amylocarpus, Pirottaea) within Helotiaceae. Moreover, the family Roesleriaceae nested within Helotiaceae. Therefore, we synonymized the family Roesleriaceae under Helotiaceae.