Cylindrium Bonord., Handb. Allgem. mykol. (Stuttgart): 34 (1851)

MycoBank number: MB 7865; Index Fungorum number: IF 7865; Facesoffungi number: FoF 09180; 10 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 3 species with sequence data.

Type speciesCylindrium elongatum Bonord.

Notes – This asexual morph genus is characterized by sporodochial conidiomata, subcylindrical conidiogenous cells and aseptate hyaline conidia arranged in long chains (Bonorden 1851, Crous et al. 2018c). The taxonomic placement of Cylindrium was doubtful for years. Cylindrium elongatum was accepted in Hypocreales incertae sedis by Lombard et al. (2015). Crous et al. (2018c) revealed that Cylindrium is a member of Hypocreales and described Cylindriaceae based on ITS sequence data. Cylindrium elongatum grouped within Amphisphaeriales in our phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 4). Cylindrium candidum and C. algarvense are illustrated in this entry (Figs. 87, 88).

Figure 4 – Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined ITS, LSU, rpb2 and tub2 sequence data for Xylariomycetidae. Two hundred and seventy-two strains are included in the combined analyses which comprised 4211 characters (1168 characters for ITS, 937 characters for LSU, 1128 characters for rpb2, 978 characters for tub2) after alignment. Achaetomium macrosporum (CBS 532.94), Chaetomium elatum (CBS 374.66) and Sordaria fimicola (CBS 723.96) are outgroup taxa. Single gene analyses were carried out and the topology of each tree had clade stability. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of – 132297.706952 is presented. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.241914, C = 0.251908, G = 0.265558, T = 0.240620; substitution rates AC = 1.281946, AG = 3.512297, AT = 1.499895, CG = 1.121065, CT = 6.472834, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter a = 0.678614. Bootstrap support values for ML greater than 75% are given near the nodes. Ex-type strains are in bold. The newly generated sequences are indicated in blue.

Figure – 4 Continued.

Figure – 4 Continued.

Figure – 4 Continued.

Figure 87 Cylindrium candidum (redrawn from Bonorden 1851) Conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidial chains.

Figure 88 Cylindrium algarvense (redrawn from Cheewangkoon et al. 2009). a Sporodochium on OA. b Creeping hyphae. c Conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidial chains. d Conidia. Scale bars: a = 200 µm, c = 10 µm, d = 20 µm.


  • Cylindrium elongatum