Asterina Lév., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 3: 59 (1845)

Synonyms
Dimerosporium Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23–24: 89 (1870) [1869–70] Asterostomella Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 22(4): 198 (1886)
Asterella (Sacc.) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 9: 393 (1891)
Myxasterina Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.- naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 118: 870 [58 repr.] (1909)
Englerulaster Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.- naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 119: 454 [62 repr.] (1910)
Thallochaete Theiss., Annls mycol. 11(6): 501 (1913)
Symphaster Theiss. & Syd., Annls mycol. 13(3/4): 217 (1915)
Parasterina Theiss. & Syd., Annls mycol. 15(3/4): 246 (1917)

Asterolibertia G. Arnaud, Annals d’École National d’Agric. de Montpellier, Série 2 16(1–4): 165 (1918) [1917]

Wardina G. Arnaud, Annals d’École National d’Agric. de Montpellier, Série 2 16(1–4): 165 (1918) [1917] Calothyriolum Speg., Boln Acad. nac. Cienc. Córdoba 23(3–4): 499 (1919)
Opeasterina Speg., Boln Acad. nac. Cienc. Córdoba 23: 498 (1919)
Isipinga Doidge, Bothalia 1(1): 15 (1921)
Aphanopeltis Syd., Annls mycol. 25(1/2): 82 (1927)
Elachopeltis Syd., Annls mycol. 25(1/2): 121 (1927)
Neostomella Syd., Annls mycol. 25(1/2): 38 (1927)
Polythyrium Syd., in Sydow & Petrak, Annls mycol. 27(1/2): 64 (1929)
Englera F. Stevens, in Stevens & Ryan, Illinois Biol. Monogr. (Urbana) 17(2): 45 (1939)

Steyaertia Bat. & H. Maia, in Batista & Garnier, Publções Inst. Micol. Recife 295: 5 (1960)
Ishwaromyces Hosag. [as ‘Ishwaramyces’], inHosagoudar, Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 28(1): 183 (2004)
Mahantshomyces Hosag. & C.K. Bi j u [ as ‘Mahanteshamyces’], in Hosagoudar, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 28(1): 189 (2004)
Bheemamyces Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 2(12): 1323 (2010)

Gangamyces Hosag., Mycosphere 3(5): 778 (2012)

Epiphytes obligately biotrophic on leaves, forming blackened, circular, elgonate or X- or Y-shaped areas. Superficial
hyphae spreading over the leaf surface, with appressoria or sometimes absent, scattered with superficial thyriothecia. Appressoria circular, lateral and alternative, sparsely septate, penetrating the host cells with haustoria. Sexual stateThyriothecia solitary, gregarious, superficial, developed below or somtimes lateral on surface of hyphae, easily removed from the host surface, rounded, black, dehiscing to open by slit-like, star-like, or X- or Y-shaped fissures when mature. Upper wall comprising a thin layer of mostly neatly arranged dark cells, which are branched at the outer rim, from which hyphae strands develop, base poorly developed. Hamathecium usually lacking pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8- spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate dehiscence not observed, oblong to subglobose, lacking a pedicel, apical region of asci usually with a thick opaque region, ocular chamber not observed, not staining blue in IKI, asci arranged vertically in the thyriothecium. Ascospores overlapping, conglobate, hyaline when immature, usually brown when mature, 1-septate, strongly constricted at the septum. Asexual states“ A s t e r o s t o m e l l a ” , “ C l a s t e r o s p o r i u m ” – like , “Mahanteshamyces”. Superficial hyphae brown, with appressoria. Conidiomata pycnothyria flattened, dimidiate, radiate, orbicular, stellately dehisced at the centre. Conidia brown, ovate, pyriform, angular, or wall straight to sinuate (Hyde et al. 2013).

Asterina sp. (MFLU 13-0619) Fig. 1

Epiphytes, obligately biotrophic on leaves, forming circular or irregular, black areas on host surface. Superficial hyphae with apressoria, septate, scattered with thyriothecia. Appressoria 1-celled, conical to cylindrical, opposite to alternate, lateral on surface of hyphae, straight to curved, sometimes curved with branches at the apex. Sexual stateThyriothecia 130–210μm diam (x = 175μm, n=20), flattened, superficial, gregarious, dark brown, seated on a thin, hyaline basal stroma, stellately dehiscing, and slightly opened at the centre, easily removed from the host surface. Asci 50–60×45– 55 μm (x= 55×50μm, n=20), 8-spored, globose, bitunicate, lacking a pedicel. Ascospores 25–30×8–10μm (x = 27× 10 μm, n=30), overlapping, with 2-layered wall, 1 pseudoseptate, strongly constricted at the septum, wall smooth, hyaline with sheath when immature, becoming brown whenmature, upper cell subglobose, lower cell slightly longer and narrower, oval to oboviod. Asexual state: Unknown.

Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Mai, Ban Pha Deng, Mushroom Research Centre, on surface of the living
leaves, 22 November 2013, Xiangyu Zeng (MFLU 13-0619).

Notes: This species is typical to Asterina species based on morphology, while molecular data also confirm its close relationship with other species in Asterina. We cannot name the species as we were unable to identify the host.

Fig. 1 Asterina sp. (MFLU 13-0619). a, b Appearance of colony with thyriothecia on the surface of leaves. c–e Squash mount of thyriothecium. f–g Upper wall. h Hyphae with appressoria. i–k Asci when immature. l Asci at maturity. m–n Ascospores with sheath. o Ascospore without sheath at maturity. Scale bars: b–e=100μm, f–l=20μm, m–o=10μm