Pyrisporaceae C.M. Tian & N. Jiang, fam. nov.

MycoBank number: MB 838315; Index Fungorum number: IF 838315; Facesoffungi number: FoF14479;

Etymology—named from the type genus, Pyrispora.

Type genusPyrispora C.M. Tian & N. Jiang

Pathogenic or saprobic on Castanea mollissima leaves. Sexual morph: Ascomata semi-immersed, aggregated, globose to pulvinate, black, single ostiolate. Ostioles single, dark grey to black. Paraphyses deliquescent. Asci cylindrical to clavate, 8-spored, bi-seriate, with a distinct apical ring. Ascospores aseptate, hyaline, smooth, fusoid, multiguttulate, straight to slight curved.  Asexual morph:  Conidiomata pycnidial,  aggregated,  globose to subglobose, black, single ostiolate. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells pyriform base with long neck, hyaline, phiailidic, unbranched, straight. Conidia aseptate, hyaline, smooth, ellipsoidal, multiguttulate.

Notes—The fungal order Diaporthales was well-classified based on both morphology and phylogeny in recent years (Figure 23) [56–59]. In this study, the sexual morph was observed on Castanea leaves, showing the typical characters of Diaporthales, the asci with distinct apical ring. Additionally, the asexual morph is distinctive based on the conidiogenous cells with pyriform base and long neck. Hence, we proposed a new family to accommodate this species.

Figure 23. Cont.

Figure 23. Phylogram generated from RAxML analysis based on combined ITS, LSU, tef1 and rpb2 sequence data of Diaporthales isolates. The tree was rooted to Pyricularia grisea (Ina 168) and Nakataea oryzae (CBS 243.76). The scale bar indicates 0.2 nucleotide changes per site.