Pyrenulaceae Rabenh., Krypt.-Fl. Sachsen, Abth. 2 (Breslau): 42 (1870)

Index Fungorum number: IF 81321; Facesoffungi number: FoF 14245

Pyrenulaceae is a family of chiefy tropical species characteristic of shaded to semi-exposed microhabitats, mostly at altitudes up to 1000 m (lowland to lower montane zone; Rivas-Plata et al. 2008). Species of Pyrenulaceae are mostly corticolous, specifically on smooth and shaded bark in tropical and subtropical forest, associated with the green algal genus Trentepohlia or in a few cases lichenicolous or non-lichenized (Aptroot 2012; Cáceres et al. 2013; Geiser et al. 2006). Until now, 307 species are being recognized, with new species described and some new combinations made and species reinstated in the past years (Aptroot 2012; Aptroot et al. 2013a, b, 2018; Gueidan et al. 2016; Lücking et al. 2017; Mendonça et al. 2016). The substantial diference in the number of recognized species in the family (232 in Lücking et al. 2017 vs. 307 in the present paper) is largely due to numerous new species of Pyrenula described or newly recognized just in the past two years, including some taxa as yet unpublished (Aptroot and Common 2017; Aptroot et al. 2018).