Hemigrapha (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. ex D. Hawksw., Kew Bull. 30(1): 9 (1975).

Melanographa sect. Hemigrapha Müll. Arg., Flora, Regensburg 65(33): 519 (1882).

MycoBank number: MB 2282; Index Fungorum number: IF 2282; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02311; 8 morphological species (Index Fungorum 2020), 1 species with molecular data.

Type species: Hemigrapha asteriscus (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. ex D. Hawksw., Kew Bull. 30(1): 191 (1975).

Notes: Hemigrapha was included in Parmulariaceae by Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010), Hyde et al. (2013) and Wijayawardene et al. (2014a). However, it is dissimilar with the family type of Parmulariaceae having dark, superficial, star-shaped ascomata forming on a thallus of lichens (Diederich and Wedin 2000; Dai et al. 2018). Ertz and Diederich (2015) included H. atlantica in their phylogenetic analysis and indicated that this genus belongs to Asterinales based on LSU sequence data, without assigning the family placement. The same result was shown in Dai et al. (2018) and in this study (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5 Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis (RAxML) of Asterinales based on LSU sequence data. Maximum likelihood bootstrap values equal to or greater than 70%, Bayesian posterior probabilities equal to or greater than 0.90 (MLBS/PP) are given at the nodes. Isolate numbers are noted after each species name. The tree is rooted to Venturia inaequalis (ATCC 60070) and Venturia populina (CBS 256.38). Newly sequence data generated in this study are in blue. Ex-types are indicated in bold. Hyphen (-) represents sup- port values less than 70% MLBS and 0.90 PP