Botryosphaeriales C.L. Schoch, Crous & Shoemaker.
MycoBank number: MB 501513; Index Fungorum number: IF 501513; Facesoffungi number: FoF 07659.
Botryosphaeriales was introduced to accommodate a single family Botryosphaeriaceae (Schoch et al. 2006). Previously, nine families (Aplosporellaceae, Botryosphaeriaceae, Melanopsaceae, Phyllostictaceae, Planistromellaceae, Saccharataceae, Septorioideaceae, Endomelanconiopsidaceae, Pseudofusicoccaceae) were accepted in Botryosphaeriales in the Outline of Ascomycetes (Wijayawardene et al. 2018). However, currently only six families (Aplosporellaceae, Botryosphaeriaceae, Melanopsaceae, Phyllostictaceae, Planistromellaceae, Saccharataceae) are accepted in this order (Phillips et al. 2019), the remaining three families were synonymized with existing families. Thus, Endomelanconiopsidaceae is considered a synonym of Botryosphaeriaceae, Pseudofusicoccaceae a synonym of Phyllostictaceae and Septorioideaceae a synonym of Saccharataceae (Phillips et al. 2019). Species in the order are characterized by uni- or multilocular ascostromata with multi-layered dark brown walls, occurring individually or in clusters, frequently embedded in stromatic tissue. Asci are bitunicate, with a thick endotunica, pedicellate or sessile, clavate, with a well-developed ocular chamber, intermixed with hyaline, septate pseudoparaphyses, branched or not. Ascospores are hyaline or pigmented, septate or not, ellipsoid to ovoid, with or without mucoid appendages or mucilaginous sheath. Conidiomata are pycnidial, uni- to multilocular, frequently embedded in stromatic tissue. Conidiogenous cells are hyaline, phialidic or annelidic. Conidia are hyaline or pigmented, septate or not, thin- or thick-walled, with or without mucoid appendages or sheaths (Phillips et al. 2019). The divergence time for Botryosphaeriales is estimated as 150 MYA (stem age, Hongsanan et al. 2020) (Fig. 14).
Accepted families: Aplosporellaceae, Botryosphaeriaceae, Melanopsaceae, Phyllostictaceae, Planistromellaceae, Saccharataceae.
Fig. 14 Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis (RAxML) of Botryosphaeriales based on ITS and LSU sequence data. Maximum likelihood bootstrap values equal to or greater than 70%, Bayesian posterior probabilities equal to or greater than 0.90 (MLBS/PP) are given at the nodes. Isolate numbers are noted after each species name. The tree is rooted to Patellaria quercus (CPC 27232 and BHI F828a). Newly sequence data generated in this study are in blue. Ex-type and references strains are indicated in bold. Hyphen (-) represents support values less than 70% MLBS and 0.90 PP