Trypetheliales Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman.

MycoBank Number: MB 90793; Index Fungorum number: IF 90793; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08780.

Aptroot et al. (2008) established Trypetheliales to accommodate a lichen-forming family Trypetheliaceae, which is phylogenetically distinct from other orders and families in Dothideomycetes (Del Prado et al. 2006). Based on molecular phylogeny and morphology, a second family Polycoccaceae, with lichenicolous fungi, was introduced by Ertz et al. (2015). The order Trypetheliales accommodates primarily lichenized and less commonly non-lichenized taxa, characterized by perithecioid ascomata appearing solitary or aggregated in pseudostromata, branched and anastomosing paraphysoids forming a distinct network, and hyaline or rarely brown ascospores, transversely septate to muriform ascospores often with diamond-shaped lumina and angular wall thickenings (Aptroot et al. 2008; Hyde et al. 2013; Nelsen et al. 2014; Ertz et al. 2015). In a case study of divergence time estimates in Dothideomycetes (Liu et al. 2017), the order was diversified approximately 215 (140–298) MYA (crown age) and 309 (231–388) MYA (stem age).