Protostropharia Redhead, Moncalvo & Vilgalys, in Redhead, Index Fungorum 15: 2 (2013), Index Fungorum number: IF 550114

Type species: Protostropharia semiglobata (Batsch) Redhead, Moncalvo & Vilgalys, in Redhead, Index Fungorum 15: 2 (2013)

Notes: Distinguished from Stropharia by the formation of astrocystidia rather than acanthocytes on mycelium including that at the bases
of basidiomes and in cracks and pockets within the dung substrate. Protostropharia astrocystidia consisting of short branch
hyphae bearing terminal globose heads of sharp, coarse hyaline crystals (presumably calcium oxalate) in contrast to the
encrusted dendroid hyphal ends bearing a stellate mass of needle sharp and shaped crystalline branches characteristic of true
acanthocytes formed by Stropharia sensu stricto. Coprophilous. Pileus and stipe glutinous. Basidiospores smooth, thick-walled,
with a germ pore. Pleurocystidia are chrysocystidia. Clamp connections present.

Etymology: Proto- (early), Stropharia.

Holotype: Agaricus semiglobatus Batsch 1786.

Phylogenetically in the Agaricales, Strophariaceae, separated from Stropharia (Moncalvo et al. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 23: 357-400.
2002; Walther et al., Mycol. Res. 109: 525-544. 2005). Gender: feminine