Parmularia Lév., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 5: 286 (1846).

MycoBank number: MB 3744; Index Fungorum number: IF 3744; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02297; 12 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 1 species with molecular data, 34 predicted number species.

Type species: Parmularia styracis Lév.

Notes: Parmularia typified by Parmularia styracis, was introduced by Léveillé (1846). Parmularia is similar to Mintera in having elongate locules radiating from a central point. However, Mintera has mycelium with appresoria, and black ascostroma with a single locule which aggregate into a star shape. In Parmularia single ascostroma contain many locules. Guatimosim et al. (2015) re-collected the type species and provided ITS, LSU and tef1-α sequence data. For further morphological details of type species, see Dai et al. (2018). Parmularia is characterized by large, black, shield like, flattened ascostromata with ridges radiating from the centre to the outer rim, and the ridges comprising elongated, radiating locules, filamentous pseudoparaphyses with brown and verrucose apices and ellipsoid, 1-septate ascospores (Inácio and Cannon 2008; Hyde et al. 2013; Dai et al. 2018).


  • Parmularia styracis