Paraophiobolus Phookamsak, Wanas. & K.D. Hyde, gen.nov. Index Fungorum number: IF553920

Etymology: The generic epithet ‘‘Paraophiobolus’’ referring to its similarity with Ophiobolus

Saprobic on Poaceae. Sexual morph: Ascomata immersed to erumpent through epidermis of host, light brown at the base, brown to dark brown towards the apex, scattered, solitary to gregarious, globose to subglobose, uni-loculate, glabrous, ostiolate, papillate. Papilla mammiform to oblong, with rounded to truncate apex, composed of several layers of dark brown to black cells, arranged in a textura angularis to textura prismatica, glabrous, ostiole central, without periphyses. Peridium thick-walled, composed of brown to dark brown, thick walled cells, arranged in a textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising numerous, broad, branched, septate, cellular pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindrical to cylindric-clavate, with short furcate pedicel, apically rounded, ocular chamber clearly visible when immature. Ascospores fasciculate, scolecosporous, with rounded ends, tapering towards the lower cells, hyaline to pale yellowish, or yellowish green at maturity, slightly curved near the apex, multi-septate, with a swollen cell, slightly constricted at the septum, not separating into part spores, smooth-walled, with or without terminal appendages. Asexual morph: Undetermined.

Type species: Paraophiobolus arundinis Phukhamsakda, Phookamsak, Wanas., E. Camporesi & K.D. Hyde

Notes: Paraophiobolus is introduced to accommodate ophiobolus-like taxa and is typifified by P. arundinis.

Paraophiobolus resembles Ophiobolus in having scolecospores, with a swollen cell. However, Paraophiobolus is phylogenetically distant from Ophiobolus and is basal to Ophiosimulans instead. Multigene phylogenetic analyses show that Paraophiobolus forms a distinct lineage with Ophiosimulans tanaceti and clusters with Ophiosimulans plantaginis with strong support. Therefore, Paraophiobolus is introduced to accommodate a new species P. arundinis and a new combination, P. plantaginis.