Ophiostomataceae Nannf., Nova Acta R. Soc. Scient. upsal., Ser. 4 8(no. 2): 30 (1932)

Index Fungorum number: IF91154; Facesoffungi number: FoF01807; 353 species.

Saprobic or parasitic on woody plants, occasionally on herbaceous plants, symbionts of or associated with beetles and mites. Sexual morph: Ascomata superficial, perithecial or cleistothecial, globose to subglobose, with external hairs, pale brown, dark brown or black, with long or short ostiolar necks, or sometimes lacking ostioles. Ostiolar neck short or long, slender, straight or flexuous, brown to dark brown at the base, pale brown to hyaline at the apex, containing parallel hyphae with pigmented cell walls around the ostiole. Ostiolar hyphae present or absent; when present, convergent or divergent, filamentous, septate, pale brown to hyaline, with some genera containing ostiolar beak (e.g. Subbaromyces). Peridium pseudoparenchymatous, with outer wall layers composed of angular cells with thickened, pigmented walls, and lined by thinwalled, hyaline cells of textura angularis. Asci 8spored, unitunicate, evanescent, fusiform, oblong to clavate, some genera globose to subglobose (e.g. Fragosphaeria), with thin, deliquescent walls. Ascospores bi to multiseriate, variable in shape, frequently asymmetrical, oval, allantoid, fusiform, cylindrical, ellipsoidal, reniform, or falcate, aseptate or 1septate, hyaline or appearing yellowish in mass, with or without a sheath. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Conidiophores mononematous or synnematous, simple or branched, with some bearing a brushlike apical branching structure (e.g. Leptographium), erect, hyaline or dark brown to black. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, polybasic, sympodial, denticulate, phiailidic, with some proliferating at or somewhat below the apex and giving rise to another series of denticles or conidiogenous loci (e.g. Ophiostoma, Sporothrix). Conidia solitary or aggregated, fusiform, obovate to oblong, cylindrical, aseptate, hyaline, some bearing conidia in a viscoid pale reddishbrown head (e.g. pesotumlike) (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b).

Type genus Ophiostoma Syd. & P. Syd.

Notes Ophiostomataceae was originally described with three genera (Ophiostoma, Ceratostomella, Endoconidiophora) (Nannfeldt 1932). de Beer et al. (2013a) accepted six genera (Ceratocystiopsis, Ophiostoma, Fragosphaeria, Leptographium, Raffaelea, Graphium) based on phylogenetic analyses. Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015, 2016b) provided an updated outline of Ophiostomataceae with 12 genera (Ceratocystiopsis, Fragosphaeria, Hyalobelemnospora, Hyalorhinocladiella, Klasterskya, Leptographium, Ophiostoma, Pesotum, Phialographium, Raffaelea, Spumatoria, Subbaromyces), which included sexual and asexual morphs, based on phylogenetic analysis. Pesotum and Hyalorhinocladiella appear to be synonyms of Ophiostoma, but this may need further study. de Beer et al. (2016a) accepted Sporothrixin Ophiostomatales based on DNA sequence data and morphology of both morphs. Bateman et al. (2016) introduced Afroraffaelea. We accept 13 genera based on previous research (Afroraffaelea, Aureovirgo,
Ceratocystiopsis
, Fragosphaeria, Graphilbum, Hawksworthiomyces, Klasterskya, Leptographium, Ophiostoma, Raffaelea, Sporothrix, Spumatoria, and Subbaromyces) (Bateman et al. 2016, de Beer et al. 2013a, 2016a, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015b, 2016b).

Ecological and economic significance of Ophiostomataceae
Members of this family are mostly saprobes on sapwood. Species are specialized with sticky spores to facilitate insect dispersal. Many bark beetles act as vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi, e.g. Ophiostoma, Leptographium, Ceratocytiopsis species (Upadhyay 1981, Wingfield et al. 1993, Jacobs & Wingfield 2001, Zipfel et al. 2006). Most species cause sap stain or blue stain of freshly cut logs and affect timber quality (Seifert 1993), and several species are important pathogens on species of Protea, Pinus, Larix, Tsuga and Pistacia and other tree species (Wingfield et al. 1988, Jacobs & Wingfield 2001, Roets et al. 2013, Zhou et al. 2013).

Figure 1. RAxML tree based on a combined dataset of ITS, SSU, LSU and EF1α of 55 strains representing the families Lophiostomataceae and Floricolaceae. MP/ML bootstrap values greater than 70 % and Bayesian posterior probabilities greater than 0.90 are given below and above the nodes. Preussia funiculata (CBS 659.74) is the out group taxon. The original isolate numbers are noted after the species names. Newly generated strains in this study are indicated in red.