Conioscypha Höhn., Annls mycol. 2(1): 58 (1904)
MycoBank number: MB 7754; Index Fungorum number: IF 7754; Facesoffungi number: FoF 05191; 16 morphological species (Liu et al. 2019b), 11 species with sequence data.
Type species – Conioscypha lignicola Höhn.
Notes – Conioscypha comprises species reported from decaying wood, leaves and bamboo from both freshwater and terrestrial habitats, except for C. japonica which was isolated from dog skin fragments and hair (Chuaseeharonnachai et al. 2017, Liu et al. 2019b). Conioscypha is characterized by a unique mode of conidiogenesis with blastic conidia produced at inconspicuous loci along the hyphae (Shearer 1973). Traditionally, the conidia were thought to be produced from ‘phialidic’ conidiogenous cells (Goh & Hyde 1998). Shearer & Motta (1973) described Conioscypha conidiogenesis to be both ‘phialidic’ and ‘annelidic’ (Shearer & Motta 1973), but Minter et al. (1983) did not agree with this observation. Cole & Samson (1979) reported conidial development to be intermediate between the ‘phialidic’ and ‘annelidic’ process and after repetitive basipetal conidial secession, the remains of the outer wall of conidia collect centripetally on the conidiogenous cells to form ‘collarettes’. Based on in vitro experiments and molecular DNA data, Réblová & Seifert (2004a) introduced Conioscyphascus, typified by Ca. varius, to accommodate holomorphs with Conioscypha asexual morphs. Another sexual-asexual relationship was established for C. peruviana (Zelski et al. 2015). Following abolishment of dual nomenclature and adoption of one fungus, one name, Conioscyphascus was accepted as a synonym of Conioscypha (Zelski et al. 2015, Réblová et al. 2016c). Although C. gracilis is the only species of the genus known in its sexual state, the presence of typical conidia on the host near ascomata was repeatedly observed (Réblová & Seifert 2004a, Zelski et al. 2015). Conioscypha varia Shearer is illustrated for the sexual morph and C. tenebrosa is illustrated for the asexual morph, in this entry.