Boliniales P.F. Cannon, Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi, Edn 9 (Wallingford): x (2001)

Boliniales was established by Kirk et al. (2001) and comprises a single family Boliniaceae based on perithecial, brown to black ascomata and cylindrical asci with smooth, ellipsoid ascospores with apical germ pores (Rick 1931, Huang et al. 2019). Most members in Boliniales have been found in America and Europe and primarily occur on wood and no asexual morph is known (Zhang et al. 2006, Huang et al. 2019). Multi-gene analyses have shown that the order is closely related to Meliolales, Phyllachorales and Chaetosphaeriales within Sordariomycetidae (Lumbsch & Huhndorf 2010, Hongsanan et al. 2017, Hyde et al. 2017a, Huang et al. 2019). The divergence time for Boliniales has been estimated as 158 MYA (Fig. 2). Currently there is one family and nine genera in this order (this paper).

Figure 2 – The maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree, using the same dataset from Fig. 1. This analysis was performed in BEAST v1.10.2. The crown age of Sordariomycetes was set with Normal distribution, mean = 250, SD = 30, with 97.5% of CI = 308.8 MYA, and crown age of Dothideomycetes with Normal distribution mean = 360, SD = 20, with 97.5% of CI = 399 MYA. The substitution models were selected based on jModeltest2.1.1; GTR+I+G for LSU, rpb2 and SSU, and TrN+I+G for tef1 (the model TrN is not available in BEAUti 1.10.2, thus we used TN93). Lognormal distribution of rates was used during the analyses with uncorrelated relaxed clock model. The Yule process tree prior was used to model the speciation of nodes in the topology with a randomly generated starting tree. The analyses were performed for 100 million generations, with sampling parameters every 10000 generations. The effective sample sizes were checked in Tracer v.1.6 and the acceptable values are higher than 200. The first 20% representing the burn-in phase were discarded and the remaining trees were combined in LogCombiner 1.10.2., summarized data and estimated in TreeAnnotator 1.10.2. Bars correspond to the 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals. The scale axis shows divergence times as millions of years ago (MYA).

Figure 2 – Continued.

Figure 2 – Continued.

Families