Trichosphaeriaceae G. Winter, Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 1.2: 191 (1885)

MycoBank number: MB 81492; Index Fungorum number: IF 81492; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01809; 125 species.

Saprobic and pathogenic on plants, commonly isolated from herbivore dung. Sexual morph: Ascomata superficial, semi-immersed or immersed, ostiolate, globose to pyriform, dark brown to black, sometimes setose. Ostiole situated in a small papilla, with bristles. Setae absent or present; brown, septate, smooth when present. Peridium carbonaceous, coriaceous or membranaceous, brown to dark brown, comprising cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses simple or branched, septate, sometimes guttulate. Asci 4–8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, pedicellate, with rounded apex, sometimes curved, rounded above, most genera have a J-, apical ring. Ascospores uniseriate to biseriate, hyaline or brown, ellipsoidal to fusiform, aseptate or 1–3-sepate, sometimes guttulate. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous (Koorchaloma) or hyphomycetous (Brachysporium). When coelomycetous: Conidiomata sporodochioid to acervular, superficial, scattered to gregarious, gelatinous or not, bright coloured, setose. Conidiophores hyaline, branched, septate, often reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells phialidic, ampulliform to lageniform or clavate, hyaline. Conidia blastic-phialidic, fusiform to naviculate, aseptate, hyaline, bearing a mucoid, funnel-shaped appendage at only apex or both ends. When hyphomycetous: Colonies effuse, brown to dark brown, hairy. Mycelium mostly immersed. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, erect, straight or flexuous, cylindrical, unbranched, often swollen at the base, brown to dark brown. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, terminal, proliferating sympodially, cylindrical, denticulate. Conidia usually pendulous, clavate, ellipsoidal, fusiform, limoniform, obovoid or pyriform, septate, brown, often with polar cells paler than middle cells (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b).

Type genusTrichosphaeria Fuckel

Notes – Winter (1887) introduced Trichosphaeriaceae with Trichosphaeria as the type genus and seven other astromatic genera. These seven genera were excluded from Trichosphaeriaceae by molecular evidence. In multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of LSU, SSU, tef1 and rpb2 sequence data by Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015), Trichosphaeriaceae had affinities with Papulosaceae and Thyridiaceae, but they maintained Trichosphaeriaceae as a separate family until further sequence data become available. However, due to lacking molecular recognition of T. pilosa, the use of Trichosphaeriales in phylogenetic studies was not recommended by Réblová & Gams (2016). Hongsanan et al. (2017) recognized Trichosphaeriaceae as family incertae sedis in Diaporthomycetidae based on phylogenetic and molecular clock evidence, and this treatment was followed by Wijayawardene et al. (2018a). Certain species in this family are coprophilic, while other members are saprobic or pathogenic on plants, including Chrysopogon zizanioides, Arenga engleri and Ulmus minor (Hudson 1963, Yanna et al. 1998, Calatayud & Aguirre-Hudson 2001).

Barr (1990b) accepted four genera in Trichosphaeriaceae, i.e. Acanthostigma, Eriosphaeria, Rhamphoria, and Trichosphaeria. Acanthostigma was transferred to Tubeufiaceae (Réblová & Barr 2000, Boonmee et al. 2011, 2014), while Rhamphoria was placed in Annulatascaceae (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b) and more recently Rhamphoriaceae. Collematospora was introduced by Jeng & Cain (1976) who assigned it to Trichosphaeriaceae based on the similar morphology with previously described genera, Eriosphaeria and Trichosphaeria in Trichosphaeriaceae. Réblová (1999b) introduced Coniobrevicolla and placed it in Trichosphaeriaceae based on the characters of peridium, ascal and hamathecium anatomy. Réblová & Seifert (2004b) found some sexual morphs which produced Brachysporium asexual morphs in culture. On the basis of morphology of perithecia, asci, ascospores and conidiogenesis, Brachysporium was placed in Trichosphaeriaceae. Pinnoi et al. (2003) described Unisetosphaeria in Trichosphaeriaceae rather than Chaetosphaeriaceae based on the morphology. Réblová & Gams (2016) studied the type material of Acanthosphaeria and relegated this genus to a synonymy of Chaetosphaeria. Voglmayr et al. (2019a) transferred all Cresporhaphis species including the type to Leptosillia (Leptosilliaceae) and Rhaphidicyrtis (Pyrenulales) except C. rhoina, and they did not give a clear classification for C. rhoina. Réblová et al. (2016b) recommended using the name Stromatographium rather than Fluviostroma because of its greater use and priority, and accepted Stromatographium in Sordariales. Trichosphaeriaceae is in need of further phylogenetic studies, including studies of types, and integration of DNA sequence data.