Pleurostomataceae Réblová, L. Mostert, W. Gams & Crous, Stud. Mycol. 50: 540 (2004)
Index Fungorum number: IF500153 ; 5 species.
Saprobic on wood or soil in terrestrial habitats, or in sewage or pathogen of humans causing subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial, black, gregarious or scattered, superficial, stipitate, globose to subglobose, coriaceous, smooth, without setae, papillate; papilla positioned laterally. Peridium composed of two to four layers, outer layer comprising brown
cells of textura intricata or epidermoidea, thick, coriaceous; inner layer comprising hyaline cells of textura prismatica or angularis, thin, membranaceous; sometimes middle layers comprised of two types of cells, forming thin-walled and brown cells of textura epidermoidea to in the outer part, merging with thin-walled and dark brown cells of textura angularis in the inner part, thick, coriaceous. Paraphyses numerous, hyaline, filamentous, early deliquescing. Asci polysporous,
unitunicate, reniform or oval, with short pedicel or sessile, apical ring lacking. Ascospores 2–3- seriate, hyaline, oblong to allantoid, curved, aseptate, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Mycelium composed of branched, septate, hyaline or brown hyphae. Conidiophores in vitro arising from aerial or submerged hyphae, hyaline, straight or flexuous, 0–2-septate, tuberculate or smooth- walled. Conidiogenous cells mono- or polyphialidic, cylindrical, hyaline, smooth-walled. Conidia aggregated in slimy droplets, hyaline, aseptate, oblong to allantoid, curved or straight, smooth, with or without guttules (adapted from Réblová et al. 2015b, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, 2016b).
Type genus – Pleurostoma Tul. & C. Tul.
Notes – Pleurostomataceae was introduced by Réblová et al. (2004). The genus was placed in Calosphaeriales based on allantoid ascospores, ascogenous hyphae and other characteristics uniting members, as well analyses of SSU and LSU sequence data (Réblová et al. 2004). Berlese (1900) introduced Neoarcangelia with N. ootheca based on upright papillae on the ascomata. However, Barr (1985) maintained there were insufficient features to separate the species from Pleurostoma candollei and placed Neoarcangelia as the synonym of Pleurostoma (Höhnel 1918b, Barr 1985). Shear (1937) also reexamined Sphaeria ootheca, the basionym of P. ootheca from Virginia, and concluded the species was similar to P. candollei. Pleurostomophora was accepted as the asexual morph of Pleurostoma based on morphology and phylogenetic evidence (Réblová et al. 2004,
Vijaykrishna et al. 2004, Najwa et al. 2012). However, only the life history of Pleurostoma ootheca has been experimentally verified and linked with Pleurostomophora ootheca. The asexual morph of P. candollei is undetermined, except for an illustration in the protologue showing a sporodochial conidiomata (Tulasne & Tulasne 1863). Réblová et al. (2015b) and Maharachchikumbura et al.
(2015) reported that Pleurostoma and Pleurostomophora are congeneric as both genera constitute a strongly supported monophyletic clade in Pleurostomataceae in a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis. Réblová et al. (2015b) proposed Pleurostoma as the correct name for the genus following the principle of priority.
Ecological and economic significance of Pleurostomataceae
Several members of Pleurostomataceae are pathogenic on plants or/and humans. Pleurostoma richardsiae has been isolated from wood, sewage and soil (Schol-Schwarz 1970) and in grafted unions of nursery vines and diseased vines (Halleen et al. 2003, Halleen & Groenewald 2005, Carlucci et al. 2015) and also infects humans (de Hoog et al. 2000). Pleurostoma repens was associated with subcutaneous infections with granulomatous nodules in humans (Hironaga et al.