Plectosphaerellaceae W. Gams, Summerb. & Zare, Nova Hedwigia 85(3–4): 476 (2007)

MycoBank number: MB 510694; Index Fungorum number: IF 510694; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01334; 164 species.

Saprobic on dead plant material or in soil and water, or pathogenic on plants or animal or mycoparasitic on fungi. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial or cleistothecial, superficial, brown to dark brown, subglobose to pyriform or globose, with elongate neck, with or without setae around the base of the neck. Peridium multi-layered, composed of dark brown cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses conspicuous in young ascomata or absent. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, clavate or saccate, without an apical ring. Ascospores irregularly arranged, hyaline or pale brown, fusiform or ellipsoidal or ovoid, 1-celled or 2-celled, wall asperulate or smooth. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous or coelomycetous. Conidiomata synnematous, sporodochial or acervular when present. Conidiophores simple or branched, hyaline or centrally pale brown or pale olivaceous. Conidiophores cells blastic or phialidic, hyaline, some become orange-brown or olivaceous-brown, partly melanized, verticillate or single, pigmented chlamydospores and microsclerotia formed by some species. Conidia aggregated in slimy heads, hyaline or pigmented, shapes variable (ranging from subglobose to oval or cylindrical, slightly curved, or fusiform with pointed ends), 1–2-celled, smooth-walled (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b, Giraldo & Crous 2019)

Type genusPlectosphaerella Kleb.

Notes   –   Plectosphaerellaceae was introduced by  Zare  et al. (2007) typified by Plectosphaerella (Zare et al. 2007, Kirk et al. 2008). The family is referred to Glomerellales by Maharachchikumbura et al. (2016b). Based on Maharachchikumbura et al. (2016b), there are nine genera accepted and listed in the family (Zare et al. 2007, Kirk et al. 2007, Réblová et al. 2011, Cannon et al. 2012a, Wijayawardene et al. 2012, Grum-Grzhimaylo et al. 2013, 2016, Hirooka et al. 2014, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015b, 2016b). Brunneomyces was introduced and typified by Brunneomyces brunnescens (Giraldo et al. 2017b). Based on phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU, SSU, ITS and tef1 sequence data and the difference in morphology, Longitudinalis (Hyde et al. 2017b) and Acremoniisimulans (Tibpromma et al. 2018) were introduced in Plectosphaerellaceae. Giraldo & Crous (2019) introduced another 12 genera in Plectosphaerellaceae based on phylogenetic analyses with a combined LSU, SSU, ITS, tef1, tryptophan synthase (ts), act and rpb2 dataset and their unique morphology. Currently, 24 genera are recognized in the Plectosphaerellaceae viz. Acremoniisimulans, Acrostalagmus, Brunneomyces, Brunneochlamydosporium, Chlamydosporiella, Chordomyces, Furcasterigmium, Fuscohypha, Gibellulopsis, Lectera, Longitudinalis, Musicillium, Musidium, Nigrocephalum, Paragibellulopsis, Paramusicillium, Phialoparvum, Plectosphaerella, Sayamraella, Stachylidium, Sodiomyces, Summerbellia, Theobromium and Verticillium sensu stricto. The placement of Cephalosporium serrae, Gliocladium cibotii and several Acremonium species remains unresolved, but are presently included in Plectosphaerellaceae.