Pisorisporiomycetidae Bundhun, Maharachch. & K.D. Hyde, subclass nov.
Index Fungorum number: IF556880
Saprobic on submerged wood or driftwood. Sexual morph: Ascomata astromatic, perithecial, solitary or aggregated in small groups, immersed, semi-immersed to superficial, ostiolate. Ostiole periphysate. Peridium 2-layered, leathery to fragile, partly carbonaceous. Paraphyses abundant, hyaline, persistent. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, pedicellate, persistent, with a J+ or J-, apical ring. Ascospores hyaline, multi-septate, often guttulate, lacking any mucilaginous sheath or appendages. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Type order – Pisorisporiales Réblová & J. Fourn.
Notes – Pisorisporiales was reported to form a sister clade with Lulworthiales and Koralionastetales in Lulworthiomycetidae with a stem age of 266 MYA (Hongsanan et al. 2017, Hyde et al. 2017a). This is congruent to the results obtained in the present study (257 MYA). Since this stem age falls within the subclass status range (250–300 MYA), Pisorisporiomycetidae is proposed here as a new subclass. This subclass contains Pisorisporiales, family Pisorisporiaceae and the two genera Achroceratosphaeria and Pisorisporium (Réblová et al. 2015a).
Divergence times of lineages were used to analyze the status of higher ranks of fungi (Hongsanan et al. 2017, 2018, Hyde et al. 2017, Liu et al. 2017). Hyde et al. (2017) provided maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree of families in Sordariomycetes and also proposed a series of evolutionary periods that could be used as a guide to define the ranking of fungi in Sordariomycetes. In our paper, we provide the MCC tree base on the updated classification of Sordariomycetes (Fig. 2). The same dataset as in Fig. 1 was used in our molecular clock analysis to compare the phylogenetic placement generated from both approaches. We use divergence time to confirm the familial status of families in Sordariomycetes according to the guidance of Hyde et al. (2017). Some families and orders are not supported by divergence times, but their status is retained due to their unique characters or lack of species (notes are provided in each family).