Phyllosticta Pers., Traité champ. Comest. (Paris): 55, 147 (1818)

Index Fungorum number: IF9384;

Phyllosticta was introduced by Persoon (1818) to accommodate P. convallariae (nom. inval., No description). Phyllosticta cruenta is a synonym of P. convallariae, which was proposed as the type species (Sutton & van der Aa 1974). It was regarded as a genus in Botryosphaeriaceae (Schoch et al. 2006), confirmed in Phillips et al. (2019). Liu et al. (2012a) found that Phyllosticta is distinct from other genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae and it was widely accepted as a single genus. At present, more than 2000 species have been recorded (https://botryosphaeriales.org/botryosphaeriales-/phyllostictaceae/). Species of Phyllosticta have significant economic importance causing diseases on leaf and fruit, which was regarded as a quarantine pest in Europe and the USA (Baayen et al. 2002, Glienke et al. 2011, Wikee et al. 2013a). Some species are common fungal endophytes (Wikee et al. 2013a, Liu et al. 2017a). This genus is mainly characterized by hyaline and aseptate conidia that may be or not covered by a mucoid layer with a single apical appendage growing in pycnidia (asexual), and erumpent ascomata (globose to pyriform) (Wikee et al. 2013b). In this study, we record Dendrobium chrysanthum as a new host for Phyllosticta capitalensis.

Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined ITS, ACT and TEF1-α sequence data. Seventy-nine strains are included in the combined analyses which comprised 1076 characters (564 characters for ITS, 235 characters for ACT, 277 characters for TEF1-α) after alignment. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of -14943.587215 is presented. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.185925, C = 0.309856, G = 0.273842, T = 0.230377; substitution rates AC = 1.270161, AG = 3.369060, AT = 1.523062, CG = 1.329349, CT = 5.079430, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter a = 0.5. Bootstrap support values for ML greater than 75% and Bayesian posterior probabilities greater than 0.95 are given near nodes respectively. The tree is rooted with Botryosphaeria dothidea (MFLUCC 17-0961) and Botryosphaeria obtusa (CMW 8232). Ex-type strains are in bold and black. The newly generated sequences are indicated in yellow.