Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola (WY Chuang, Ariyawansa, Jiuein Yang & Stadler) Y.P. Xiao & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. Fig. 12, 13

Synonymy: Polycephalomyces elaphomyceticola W.Y. Chuang, H.A. Ariyaw., J.I. Yang & Stadler, in Yang, Stadler, Chuang & Ariyawansa, Mycol. Progr. 19(1): 102 (2020)

MycoBank number: MB 830670; Index Fungorum number: IF 830670; Facesoffungi number: FoF 10735;

Type: Holotype NTUH 17-021

Host: Elaphomyces muricatus (Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae)

Parasitic on Elaphomyces sp. (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales), collected from soil. Sexual morph: Host 1.5–3 cm diam, Elaphomyces sp., globose, dark brown to brown, with hard surface. Stromata 2–10 cm long, 0.1–0.5 cm wide, cylindrical, solitary or several, branched, wiry, the color gradually become lighter towards the top, dark brown to titian red to brownish orange to yellow to pale, hard. Stipe 2–6 cm long, 0.1–0.5 cm wide, cylindrical, branched, not obviously distinct with fertile head, dark brown to titian red, ascomata scattered to gathered on the stipe. Fertile head 3–7 cm long, 0.1–0.5 cm wide, cylindrical, branched, upper surface roughened. Perithecia 430–600 × 255–300 μm ( = 515 × 280 µm, n = 60), superficial, ovoid to ellipsoid, ostiolate, ostiole lined with periphyses, yellow to brown when mature, pale to yellowish when immature, mature and immature perithecia observed at the same time, usually immature perithecia at the top area of stipe, maturely perithecia at the low area of stipe, scattered to gathered on the stipe, thick-walled. Peridium 50–65 µm ( = 60 µm, n = 90) wide, yellow to hyaline, the colour gradually becomes lighter towards the inner layer, three layers, textura prismatica to textura angularis to textura porrecta. Asci 365–420 × 5–7.6 μm ( = 370 × 6.4 µm, n = 90), 8-spored, hyaline, filiform, with a thin apex. Apical cap 2–3.5 × 3.3–5.2 μm ( = 3 × 4.2 µm, n = 60), thin, hyaline. Ascospores 360–415 × 1.5–2.2 μm ( = 390 × 1.8 µm, n = 90), filiform, hyaline, irregular multiseptate. Secondary spores 1.5–3.2 × 1.4–2.3 μm ( = 2.4 × 1.9 µm, n = 90) globose to cylindrical, one-celled, hyaline, smooth, some up to 6 µm long. Asexual morph: See Fig. 14 Hyphomycetes. Parasitic on Ophicordyceps sp. (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales), collected from the underside of leaves. Host Ophicordyceps sp. Synnemata absent. Conidial mass covered the surface of colony on Ophicordyceps sp., white to yellowish. Conidiophores 18–30.2 μm long ( = 24.1 µm, n = 60) hyaline, borne from surface hyphae, predominantly symmetrically monoverticillate, 2–6 phialides in one. Metulae 3–5 × 0.9–1.2 μm ( = 4 × 1.1 µm, n = 50), cylindrical, hyaline, smooth. Phialides 12–16 × 0.6–1.5 μm ( = 14 × 1.1 µm, n = 50) hyaline, smooth, narrow cylindrical at the low base part, 5–11 μm long, tapering into a long neck, 2–5 μm long. Conidia 3.2–4.5 × 1.2–2.1μm ( = 3.8 × 1.6 µm, n = 50), aseptate, fusiform to ellipsoid to inequilateral shaped, hyaline, 1-celled, smooth-walled.

Material examined: China, Yunnan Province, Jinghong City, Dadugang Village. Parasitic on Elaphomyces sp. in soil, 11 June 2018, YuanPin Xiao, DG01, DG04H, DG04, DG07 (MFLU 21-0262, MFLU 21-0263, MFLU 21-0264, MFLU 21-0265). China, Yunnan Province, Jinghong City, Dadugang Village. parasitic on Ophicordyceps sp. on the underside of leaves (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales), 11 June 2018, YuanPin Xiao (MFLU 21-0266).

Notes: Yang et al. (2020) described a new (Polycephalomyces elaphomyceticola) species and treated all species of Perennicordyceps as Polycephalomyces. We propose a new combination of Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola, initially described as Polycephalomyces elaphomyceticola by Yang et al. (2020). These new collections clustered with Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola in the Perennicordyceps clade of the phylogenetic tree (Fig. 11). Three new collections of Perennicordyceps. elaphomyceticola collected from Yunnan Province of China are proposed as fungicolous on Elaphomyces sp. (Fig. 12). Two new collections are introduced as fungicolous taxa on Ophicordyceps sp. (Fig. 13). Ophicordyceps sp. is a new host of Pe. elaphomyceticola, broadening the host range. Furthermore, we describe the asexual morph of Pe. elaphomyceticola. The new collections have 1 bp in untrimmed ITS (488 bp), 2 bp in LSU (749bp), 2 bp in TEF (734bp), 4 bp in RPB1 (640bp), and 107 bp in RPB2 (608bp), different from the holotype of Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola. The new collections have 1 bp in ITS, 2 bp in LSU, 1 bp in SSU, 2 bp in TEF, 4 bp in RPB1, and 4 bp in RPB2, differ from the other strains of Pe. elaphomyceticola provided with the holotype in the same publication. The RPB2 sequence of the holotype (NTUCC 17–021) is clearly distinct from the other strains (NTUCC 17–022, NTUCC 17–023) and the new collections from China. In this case, the RPB2 gene of the holotype (NTUCC 17–021) needs to be resequenced for clarification. Moreover, two new collections were fungicolous on Ophiocordyceps sp. (Fig. 13). Ophiocordyceps sp. is a new host for Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola, which broadens the range of hosts.

Fig. 12. Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola (New combination: MFLU 21-0262,) a, b Habitat of Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola. c Stromata emerging from infected Elaphomyces sp. d Overview of host. e, f Fertile head of ascostroma. g, i Stroma. k, l Vertical section of stroma. h, j, n Perithecia. m Peridium. oq Asci. r Part of ascospore. s Apical cap of asci. tw Secondary ascospores. Scale Bars: b–f = 1 cm, g = 1000 µm, i, k, l = 500 µm, h, j = 200 µm, n–q = 100 µm, r = 20 µm, s, t = 10 µm, w = 5 µm, u, v = 2 um.

Fig. 13. Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola (New host: MFLU 21-0266) a. Overview of Perennicordyceps elaphomyceticola and Ophocordyceps sp. b. Mycelium on the surface of stroma. c. Section of host. d. Mycelium and conidia on the surface of perithecia. e, f. Phialides. g. Conidia. Scale Bars: c = 500 µm, d = 100 µm, e–g = 10 µm.