Melanommataceae G. Winter [as ‘Melanommeae’], Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 1.2: 220 (1885)
Facesoffungi number: FoF 01023

Saprobic or parasitic on plants in terrestrial, marine or freshwater habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered or gregarious, immersed to erumpent, nearly superficial, globose to subglobose, carbonaceous or coriaceous, papillate or epapillate. Peridium composed of heavily pigmented, thickwalled, pseudoparenchymatous cells. Hamathecium of dense, long, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate to nearly cylindrical, pedicellate, apically rounded with an ocular chamber. Ascospores uniseriate or bi-seriate, fusoid to ellipsoidal, or muriform, hyaline or brown, 1 to multi-septate, with or without a mucilaginous sheath, wall smooth or verrucose. Asexual morph: Mostly coelomycetous and rarely hyphomycetous with various conidium ontogenic structures.

Notes: In the present study, 20 genera are accepted in Melanommataceae, including seven asexual morphs. Wijayawardene et al. (2012) listed the asexual morphs as Aposphaeria, Beverwykella, Exosporiella, Monodictys, Monotosporella, Nigrolentilocus, Pyrenochaeta and Sporidesmiella. de Gruyter et al. (2012) showed that phylogenetically Aposphaeria belongs to Melanommataceae.
However Seifert et al. (2011) stated that Monodictys and Monotosporella are probably heterogenous. Based on the phylogenetic analysis in this study, Anomalemma is synonymized under Exosporiella. Beverwykella and Sporidesmiella are excluded from Melanommataceae (Fig. 1). Therefore, seven asexual morphs are accepted as Aposphaeria, Exosporiella, Monotosporella, Mycopappus, Nigrolentilocus, Phragmocephala and Xenostigmina. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, Aposphaeria, Bertiella, Byssosphaeria, Herpotrichia, Melanomma, Monotosporella, Muriformistrickeria, Mycopappus, Phragmocephala, Pseudostrickeria, Sarimanas cluster in the Melanommataceae. Asymmetricospora, Bicrouania, Calyptronectria, Caryosporella, Exosporiella, Mamillisphaeria, Navicella, Nigrolentilocus and Ohleria are retained within the Melanommataceae based on morphological similarities, especially the coriaceous or carbonaceous ascomata with ostioles and trabeculate pseudoparaphyses.