Melanomma Nitschke ex Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23-24: 159 (1870).

MycoBank number: MB 3070; Index Fungorum number: IF 3070; Facesoffungi number FoF00774; 82 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 5 species with molecular data.

Type speciesMelanomma pulvis-pyrius (Pers.) Fuckel.

Notes – This species was based on its small, carbonaceous ascomata, and hyaline or brown, 2–3-septate ascospores (Fuckel 1870, Chesters 1938). A detailed circumscription of Melanomma was given by Barr (1990a). Kirk et al. (2001) accepted 20 species, while 309 epithets are listed in Index Fungorum (2020). Most species have not been well studied since their initial introduction and there is no molecular data available. Melanomma pulvis-pyrius and M. japonicum are the only two species with detailed morphological description and illustration and also have a multi-gene analysis to clarify intergeneric taxonomic affinities of Melanomma in the Melanommataceae (Mathiassen 1989, 1993, Barr 1990a, Mugambi & Huhndorf 2009a, Tian et al. 2015, Hashimoto et al. 2017a, Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2017, Wanasinghe et al. 2018c). Aposphaeria, Nigrolentilocus, Phoma-like and Pseudospiropes have been reported as asexual morphs of Melanomma (Chesters 1938, Sivanesan 1984, Hyde et al. 2011, Tian et al. 2015, Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2016, 2017, Hashimoto et al. 2017a, Wanasinghe et al. 2018c).