Induratia Samuels, E. Müll. & Petrini, Mycotaxon 28(2): 484 (1987)

Index Fungorum number: IF 25403; MycoBank number: MB 25403Facesoffungi number: FoF 06906; 26 morphological species (Samarakoon et al. 2020; mostly previously classified as Muscodor spp.), 25 species with sequence data.

Type speciesInduratia apiospora Samuels, E. Müll. & Petrini

Notes Muscodor was introduced by Worapong et al. (2001) and the species identification is mainly based on their characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inconclusive hyphal characters such as coiling, ropyness and by right angle branching patterns and inadequate phylogenetic analyses (Worapong et al. 2001, González et al. 2009). Due to the lack of taxon sampling, incomplete phylogenetic comparisons and undetermined morphology the taxonomic placement of Muscodor was considered doubtful (Stadler et al. 2013, Wendt et al. 2018). Therefore, Lumbsch & Huhndorf (2010) did not accept the genus, while Seifert & Gams (2011), Maharachchikumbura et al. (2016b) and Daranagama et al. (2018) accepted the genus and placed it in Xylariales genera incertae sedis. Wendt et al. (2018) proposed to reject the genus from the family because of poor taxonomic standards. Samarakoon et al. (2020) found evidence that the Muscodor is connected to Induratia, whose sexual morph was described by Samuels et al. (1987). Based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach including a multi gene genealogy, as well as volatile metbolite profiles and dual culture experiments, Samarakoon et al. (2020) erected nine new species and several new combinations of Induratia mainly resolving the taxonomic confusions of previously published Muscodor species into a new family Induratiaceae. Induratia thailandica is illustrated in this entry (Fig 1).

Figure 1 Induratia thailandica (Material examined – THAILAND, Chang Wat Chiang Mai, Amphoe Mae Taeng, Tambon Pa Pae, on dead wood, 1 September 2017, M.C. Samarakoon, SAMC015, MFLU 18-0784, holotype). a-c Ascomata on the host surface. d Vertical section of ascoma. e, f Section of peridium (f in Congo Red). g, k-m Asci (g in Congo Red). h Paraphyses. i Apical ring J+ in Melzer’s reagent. j Ascus apex in Congo Red. n-r Ascospores. Scale bars: d = 200 µm, e-g, k-m = 20 µm, h, n-r =10 µm, i, j = 5 µm.


  • Induratia apiospora