Hypocreaceae De Not. [as ‘Hypocreacei’], G. bot. ital. 2(1): 48 (1844)

Index Fungorum number: IF 80892

Members of the Hypocreaceae have the most colourful, fleshiest stroma found in nature. They are found as biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, saprobic or hypersaprobic and fungicolus forms (Chaverri & Samuels 2003, Jaklitsch 2009, 2011, Rossman et al. 2013, Talavera-Ortiz et al. 2020). The family consists of  606 species distributed among 17 genera (Hyde et al. 2020a, Wijayawardene et al. 2020). This family is characterized by superficial and brightly coloured ascostromata; immersed, single to bundled perithecia; cylindrical, 8-spored, rarely polyspored asci; single-celled to partially split, hyaline, yellowish-pink to greenish-brown ascospores with various surface morphologies. The phylogenetic tree showed that it has a close relationship with Bionecriaceae and Nectriaceae. An updated phylgeny of several genera in Hypocreaceae.

Phylogram generated from maximum parsimony analysis based on ITS sequence data. Fifty strains are included in the analyses which comprised 581 characters for ITS, after alignment. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of -5591.621626 is presented. The matrix had 363 distinct alignment patterns with 6.96 % of indeterminate characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.223613, C = 0.308526, G = 0.263639, T = 0.204222; substitution rates AC = 1.152229, AG = 1.233710, AT = 1.491694, CG = 0.731040, CT = 2.057046, GT = 1.000000; Proportion of invariable sites I = 0.000100; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.475501. Bootstrap support values for ML greater than 75% and Bayesian posterior probabilities greater than 0.95 are given near nodes respectively. The tree is rooted with Xylaria hypoxylon CBS 1226.20. Ex-type strains are in bold and black. The newly generated sequences are indicated in yellow.