Groenewaldia Rajeshk., R.K. Verma, O.P. Sruthi & Crous, in Rajeshkumar, Varma, Sruthi, Gautham & Crous, Mycol. Progr. 22(6, no. 43): 11 (2023)

Index Fungorum number: IF 847533, Facesoffungi number- FoF 16009

Etymology – Named after Johannes Z. Groenewald in recognition of his contribution to fungal systematics.

Diagnosis – The determinate synnemata of Groenewaldia have stipe-like stalk that are considerably wider (320–520×215–287 µm) than the morphologically similar genera such as Kostermansinda (162–400×18.5–30 µm), Pantospora (290×40 µm; from epitype BPI 880778) and Synnemacrodictys (180–)300–75×20–35 µm; measurements from type and Heredia et al. (2000), Denchev (2011), Mercado & Mena (1968). The synnemata are basistromatic in Pantospora but absent in Groenewaldia. The mucilaginous sheet of young condia is unique to Kostermansinda but absent in Groenewaldia, Pantospora and Synnemacrodictys. Likewise, percurrent proliferation is absent in Synnemacrodictys but present in Groenewaldia, and Pantospora. The conidial secession in Groenewaldia and Kostermansinda are rhexolytic but schizolytic in Pantospora and Synnemacrodictys.

Description – Sexual morph: not observed. Asexual morph: Conidiomata on bark, synnematous, determinate synnemata, scattered, dark brown to black. Conidiophores are densely aggregated like a stem or stipe, septate, straight, smooth, pale brown or colourless. Conidiogenous cells integrated, terminal, ellipsoidal with percurrent proliferations, non-cicatrized. Conidia formed singly, broad obovoid or obclavate, eu- and dictyoseptate, wall thick, pale to dark brown, verruculose, bases truncate, basal hilum somewhat thickened and darkened, rhexolytic.


  • Groenewaldia indica