Fuscosporellales J. Yang, J. Bhat & K.D. Hyde, ord. nov.,

Index Fungorum number: IF552288

Saprobic on twigs in terrestrial or aquatic habitats. Sexual morph Ascomata perithecial, astromatic, immersed to semi-immersed, dark brown to black, papillate or with a neck. Ostiole periphysate. Ascomatal wall fragile, several layered. Hamathecium of true, septate paraphyses. Asci unitunicate, cylindrical to cylindricfusiform, stipitate, 8-spored, apex with a non-amyloid apical ring. Ascospores fusiform, uniseriate, hyaline or light brown, transversely septate. Asexual morph Conidiomata sporodochial. Conidiophores micronematous, macronematous, mononematous, usually reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells blastic, hyaline, obovate to globose. Conidia brown, uniseptate, obovate to obpyriform.

Note: The order has been established in Hypocreomycetidae based on combined SSU, LSU and rpb2 phylogenetic analyses and comprises one family, Fuscosporellaceae (Yang et al. 2016b). Six genera, namely, Fuscosporella, Parafuscosporella, Mucispora, Bactrodesmiastrum, Plagiascoma and Pseudoascotaiwania are accommodated within Fuscosporellaceae. Earlier, Bactrodesmiastrum and Plagiascoma were placed in Sordariomycetes genera incertae sedis (Réblová et al. 2016c). Yang et al. (2016b) showed that these two genera clustered with three newly introduced genera, Fuscosporella, Parafuscosporella and Mucispora. The species Ascotaiwania persoonii also grouped with the five genera, away from the type species of Ascotaiwania. This species was therefore synonymized under Pseudoascotaiwania persoonia (Yang et al. 2016b). The six genera form a monophyletic clade represented by Fuscosporellales, which is sister to Conioscyphales, Pleurotheciales and Savoryellales (Yang et al. 2016b). The divergence time for Fuscosporellales has been estimated as 190 MYA (Fig. 2). Currently there is one family and six genera in this order.

Type family: Fuscosporellaceae J. Yang, Bhat & K.D. Hyde 2016

Figure 1 – Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, SSU, ITS and rpb2 sequence data of Conioscyphales, Fuscosporellales, Parasympodiellales, Pleurotheciales and Savoryellales. One hundred and twenty-nine strains are included in the combined analyses which comprised 4253 characters (910 characters for LSU, 1499 characters for SSU, 759 characters for ITS and 1085 characters for rpb2) after alignment. Lindra thalassiae (AFTOL-ID 413) and Lulworthia uniseptata (AFTOL-ID 5014) are used as outgroup taxa. Single gene analyses and the phylogenies were similar in topology and clade stability. Tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best RaxML tree with a final likelihood value of -50774.805453 is presented. Estimated base frequencies were as follows: A = 0.233897, C = 0.263834, G = 0.294235, T = 0.208033; substitution rates AC = 1.342378, AG = 2.736022, AT = 1.339928, CG = 0.989078, CT = 6.301203, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter a = 0.440908. Bootstrap support values for ML greater than 70% and Bayesian posterior probabilities greater than 0.95 are given near the nodes. The tree is rooted with Lindra thalassiae (AFTOL-ID 413) and Lulworthia uniseptata (AFTOL-ID 5014). Type strains are in bold and black. The newly generated sequence is indicated in blue.