Citation: Hiran A. Ariyawansa, Kazuaki Tanaka, Kasun M. Thambugala, Rungtiwa Phookamsak, Qing Tian, Erio Camporesi,Singang Hongsanan, Jutamart Monkai, Marco Thines, Ekachai Chukeatirote, Jian-Chu Xu, Kevin D.Hyde

Didymosphaeriaceae Munk, Dansk bot. Ark. 15(no. 2): 128 (1953)

= Montagnulaceae M.E. Barr, Mycotaxon 77: 194 (2001)

Saprobic or parasitic in terrestrial or aquatic environments. Sexual state: Ascomata scattered or gregarious, immersed in substrate, surrounded with hyphae forming an apical clypeus, dark brown to black, globose to rarely subglobose, medium to large sized, andcoriaceous. Ostiole immersed to sub-immersed, periphysate when well-developed with a short apex, narrow or wide, usually circular in section. Peridium two layered or often three layered in the upper region, composed of cells of textura angularis or textura intricata, dark brown to black, coriaceous, with outermost layer consisting of black, highly pigmented thick-walled conglutinate cells or pseudoparenchymatous cells, with middle layer less pigmented, cells visible via apex, with innermost layer comprising narrow, compressed rows of cells. Hamathecium of dense, septate, narrow, cellular or trabeculatepseudoparaphyses often in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 2–8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindric or oblong, pedicellate, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores uniseriate or biseriate, oblong to narrowly oblong, hyaline, brown to reddish-brown or dark yellowish-brown, one to several septate (phragmosporous or muriform), verruculose, with or without a gelatinous sheath. Asexual states:coelomycetous (Barr 2001), Kalmusia and Paraphaeosphaeria have Coniothyrium-like, Cytoplea, Microsphaeropsis asexual stages. The generic type of Paraphaeosphaeria (P. michotii) was linked with Coniothyrium scirpi Trail (Webster 1955). The Coniothyrium-like species were subdivided into four groups by Sutton (1980), viz. Coniothyrium, Microsphaeropsis, Cyclothyrium and Cytoplea. Paraconiothyrium, which is closely related to Paraphaeosphaeria based on SSU sequences phylogeny (Verkley et al. 2004), was introduced to accommodate Coniothyrium minitans and C. sporulosum.


Notes: The Didymosphaeriaceae is amended here to include Didymosphaeria and genera from Montagnulaceae including asexual states. We synonymise Montagnulaceae under Didymosphaeriaceae whichis the oldest name and has priority and provide an updated account of the family.


Type: Didymosphaeria Fuckel, Jb. Nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23-24: 140 (1870)


Fig. 1 RAxML tree based on a combined dataset of SSU, LSU, RPB2 and TEF1, bootstrap support values for maximum likelihood (blue), maximum parsimony (green) greater than 50% and bayesian posterior probabilities greater than 0.90 (black) below and above the nodes. Halojulella avicenniae is the outgroup taxon. The original isolate numbers are noted after the species names and ex-type strains are in bold. The type species of each genus is indicated in blue.