Falcocladiales R.H. Perera, Maharachch., S. Somrithipol, S. Suetrong & K.D. Hyde

Index Fungorum number: IF551132

Type family: Falcocladiaceae

This monotypic order in the subclass Hypocreomycetidae is introduced to accommodate the family Falcocladiaceae. Members of this family are saprobes on leaf litter and leaves including Eucalyptus grandis and E. camaldulensis in tropical, terrestrial habitats (Crous et al. 1994; Jones et al. 2014).

Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Conidiomata hyaline, sporodochial or synnematal, or penicillate, arising from the mycelium or from a stroma or from microsclerotia, thick-walled with non-septate stipe extensions that terminate in thin-walled sphaeropendunculate vesicles. Conidiophores hyaline, non to multi-septate, branched, forming three series of branches per conidioma (primary, secondary and tertiary), subcylindical. Conidiogenous cells phialidic, arranged in 2–6 whorls, necks elongate, with minute collarettes. Conidia transseptate, hyaline, falcate, with short apical and basal appendages (Jones et al. 2014).

Type species: Falcocladium multivesiculatum S.F. Silveira et al.

Notes: Falcocladiales was introduced to accommodate Falcocladiaceae by Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015). Falcocladiaceae comprises a single genus Falcocladium (Jones et al. 2014). Falcocladiales grouped sister to Coronophorales and Parasympodiellales with low statistical
support (63% ML) in our phylogenetic analysis. The divergence time for Falcocladiales has been estimated as 192 MYA. Currently there is one family with one genus in this order.

References

Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Alfenas AC, Silveira SF (1994) Cylindrocladium naviculatum sp. nov. and two new vesiculate hyphomycete genera, Falcocladium and Vesicladiella. Mycotaxon 50: 441–458

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Cheng WH, Rungjindamai N, Sakayaroj J, Boonyuen N, Somrothipol S, Abdelwahab MA, Pang KL (2014) An additional fungal lineage in the Hypocreomycetidae (Falcocladium species) and the taxonomic revaluation of Chaetosphaeria chaetosa and Swampomyces species, based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. Cryptogam Mycol 35(2):119–138

Figure 1 – Phylogram generated from maximum likelihood analysis based on combined LSU, SSU and rpb2 sequence data of selected taxa from Falcocladiales and Torpedosporales. Twenty-six strains are included in the combined gene analyses comprising 3557 characters after alignment (1142 characters for LSU, 1440 characters for SSU and 967 characters for rpb2). Nectria haematococca (GJS89-70) is used as the outgroup taxon. Analyses of each single gene were performed and the topology of each tree had clade stability. The tree topology in maximum likelihood analysis was similar to the Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses. Maximum likelihood analysis with 1000 bootstrap replicates yielded a best tree with the likelihood value of – 14936.746257. The matrix had 1096 distinct alignment patterns, with 25.55% of undetermined  characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were as follows; A = 0.247642, C = 0.231060, G = 0.304405, T = 0.216894; substitution rates AC = 1.746605, AG = 3.110551, AT = 1.540183, CG = 1.746965, CT = 7.476678, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.291342. Maximum parsimony (black) and maximum likelihood (black) bootstrap values >65% and Bayesian posterior probabilities (blue) >0.90 (ML/BYPP) are given above the nodes. Ex-type strains are in bold.

Families