Entonaema A. Mo ¨ller, Bot. Mitt. Trop. 9: 306. (1901) emend. in Stadler et al. Mycol Prog 7:53–73 (2008)

Saprobic on decayed tree trunks. Sexual morph: Stromata 0.5–0.7 mm diam., partially embedded in host tissue, upper part superficial, orbicular, externally white at immature stages, becoming dull at maturity, perithecioid, multiple ascomata, interior tissue white and surrounding ascomata, stromal tissue partially encased ascomata, erumpent through the bark periderm at maturity. Ascomata 500–1000 × 900–1200 μm, sphaerical to elongate, immature ascomata surrounded by black, carbonaceous, clypeoid stromata developing from the whitish stromal tissue, with maturing clypeoid stromata extending horizontally to facilitate the growth of ascoma. Ostioles coarsely papillate, visible as blackened conical areas. Asci not observed. Ascospores 13–21 × 7–10 μm, unicellular, ellipsoid-equilateral, with narrowly rounded ends, light brown, lack mucilaginous sheath, with straight germ slit, full-length, on concave side. Asexual morph: Where known nodulisporium-like.

Type species: Entonaema liquescens Möller , Bot. Mitt. Trop. 9: 307

Notes: Stromata of Entonaema are characterized by globose, hollow, gelatinous stromata. Entonaema was introduced with two species, E. liquescens A. Möller and E. mesentericum A. Möller. Rogers (1982) described a nodulisporium-like asexual morph for E. liquescens. Eriksson and Hawksworth (1985) and Læssøe (1994), treated Entonaema as a separate genus in Xylariaceae. Stadler et al. (2008) provided a comparison of morphology, HPLC profiles, and ribosomal DNA sequences of Entonaema species. In their treatment six Entonaema species were accepted and E. pallidum and E. mesentericum were regarded as synonyms of Xylaria mesenterica. Detailed taxonomic affinities with genera like Xylaria and Daldinia were discussed by Stadler et al. (2008). Based on the morphology of the sexual and asexual morphs and the available molecular data we placed Entonaema in Hypoxylaceae.

Species

  •  Entonaema liquescens