Dwiroopa Subram. & Muthumary, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Pl. Sci. 96(3): 196 (1986)

Index Fungorum number: IF11077; 3 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 2 species with sequence data.

Type species – Dwiroopa ramya Subram. & Muthumary

Notes – Members of Dwiroopa resemble Harknessia in having uni- to multiloculate, thick-walled, immersed to semi-immersed conidiomata, becoming erumpent, dark brown and aseptate, thick-walled macroconidia with holoblastic conidiogenesis, with conidiogenous cells bearing periclinal thickenings. Dwiroopa is distinguished from Harknessia in having distinct, holoblastic conidiogenesis, thick-walled conidiogenous cells and broadly spaced several longitudinal striations in the macroconidia, lacking a basal appendage and showcasing a dark scar with minute marginal frills at the conidial connection. Harknessia is distinct from Dwiroopa in having macroconidia that are smooth-walled or have closely spaced longitudinal raised bands on only one side and usually with a true basal appendage. Furthermore, Dwiroopa produces three different kinds of conidia viz. macroconidia, mesoconidia and phialoconidia (Farr & Rossman 2003), which are not produced in Harknessia. Farr & Rossman (2003) redescribed Dwiroopa ramya and designated it as a lectotype and also introduced Harknessia lythri as Dwiroopa lythri in Dwiroopa based on morphological similarities. 

  • Dwiroopa lythri

  • Dwiroopa punicae

  • Dwiroopa ramya