Dothiora Fr., Summa veg. Scand., Section Post. (Stockholm): 418 (1849).

Synonyms

Dothiora subgen. Metadothis Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 8: 766 (1889)
Jaapia Kirschst., Krypt.−Fl. Brandenburg (Leipzig) 7(3): 444 (1938)
Keisslerina Petr., Annls mycol. 17(2/6): 74 (1920) [1919] Leptodothiora Höhn., Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 36: 311 (1918)
Metadothis (Sacc.) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 10: 857 (1892)
Stigmea Bonord., Abh. naturforsch. Ges. Halle 8: 79 (1864)

Saprobic or parasitic on leaves, branches or twigs in terrestrial habitatas. Sexual state: Ascostromata black, immersed to erumpent, pulvinate to depressed globose, multiloculate, thick-walled, cells of ascostromata composed of lightly pigmented or dark brown cells of textura angularis. Locules globose to subglobose, broadly rounded to short papillate, apex opening by an irregular, small pore. Peridium of locules composed of several layers of thick-walled dark brown cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium lacking pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8 or more spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to clavate, pedicellate, with a small ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping biseriate to crowded, one to many septate, usually constricted at the primary median septum, sometimes with a vertical septum in one or several of the central cells and rarely in the end cells, hyaline, rarely yellow to pale brown, obovate to elliptic or fusoid, often inequilateral or slightly curved, smooth, occasionally surrounded by a thin mucilaginous sheath. Asexual states: Dothichiza sp.: Pycnidia frequently found on host and produced in culture conidial stroma similar to ascostromata. Conidiogenous cells lining the cavity of the pycnidium. Conidia avoid to oblong, hyaline, one celled formed singly on phialidic, obpyriform, simple, smooth-walled. (asexual morph description follows D. europaea) (Eriksson 1981; Sivanesan 1984).

Notes: Dothiora was introduced by Fries (1849) with D. pyrenophora (Fr.) Fr. as the type species. Saccardo (1889) and Lindu (1897) included the genus in the Discomycetes, while Theissen and Sydow (1915) placed it in Dothideales. Theissen and Sydow (1917) moved the genus to the new family Dothioraceae under the order Myringiales. Clements and Shear (1931) placed it both in the Phacidiacede and Myriangiaceae (Miller and Burton 1943). Froidevaux (1972) placed Dothiora in Dothioraceae along with four other genera (Table 3) and assigned D. sorbi (Dothiora pyrenophora synonymized with D. sorbi) as the type species. Barr (1972) listed eleven species with, D. pyrenophora as type species, while Froidevaux (1972) accepted 14 species. Von Arx and Müller (1975) and Sivanesan (1984) treated Dothiora under the family Dothideaceae as they synonymized Dothideaceae and Dothioraceae. Barr (1987a), Hawksworth et al. (1995) and Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010) however, categorized Dothiora under Dothioraceae as they treated Dothideaceae and Dothioraceae as separate two families in Dothideales.

The asexual state of Dothiora pyrenophora has been reported as Dothichiza sorbi Lib. by Sivanesan (1984) as pycnidia formed in culture and abundantly on the host. The type species of Dothichiza is D. populea Sacc. & Briard, which causes cankers of Populus sp. (Hedgcock and Hunt 1916; Waterman 1957). Dothiora populea forms multiloculate pustules on the surface of Populus sp., but have not been linked to a sexual state. Although some species of Dothichiza have been linked to Dothideales via molecular data (Bills et al. 2004; Zalar et al. 2008), it has not been established that Dothiora pyrenophora and Dothichiza populea are related.