Dothideaceae Chevall. [as ‘Dothideae‘], Fl. gén. env. Paris (Paris) 1: 446 (1826).

Biotrophic, necrotrophic or saprobic on twigs and other parts of plants, rarely on leaves. Sexual state: Ascostromata dark brown to black, immersed to erumpent or superficial, solitary or scattered, usually pulvinate or crustose, globose to subglobose, uni or multiloculate, locules up to 13, non-ostiolate, opening by an apical, usually lysigenous pore or by dehiscence, interascal tissue lacking, ascostromata composed of several layers of light brown to dark brown cells of textura angularis. Peridium of locules generally of several layers of lightly pigmented, dark brown, thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium generally lacking pseudoparaphyses, hyaline, when present septate. Asci 8- or poly-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, saccate or clavate, short-pedicellate, inner membrane apically thickened, apically rounded with an ocular chamber, asci borne at the base of the locules. Ascospores uni-seriate or bi-seriate, partially overlapping, hyaline or brown, transversely septate, constricted at the primary septum, sometimes muriform, small, wall smooth to verrucose, with or without a sheath. Asexual states: mostly coelomycetous or hyphomycetous species of Coleophoma, Cylindroseptoria, Hormonema, Endoconidioma and Kabatina. Conidiomata pycnidial, stromatic, epidermal to subepidermal, solitary or aggregated, immersed to erumpent, globose to subglobose or flask-shaped or irregular, dark brown to black, uni or multi loculate or convoluted with or without central ostioles. Conidiomata wall composed of several layers of hyaline, brown to dark brown cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores present or reduced to conidiogenous cells, hyaline to pale brown at the base, branched, septate, smooth when present. Conidiogenous cells enteroblastic, phialidic, integrated or discrete, determinate, cylindrical to doliiform, hyaline to brown, smooth-walled, lining the inner cavity. Conidia hyaline, aseptate or one-septate, cylindrical or ellipsoid, smooth-walled, granular or not, guttulate.

Type: Dothidea Fr.

Notes: In this study, we synonymize Dothioraceae under Dothideaceae and accept fifteen genera in Dothideaceae. Recollection, epitypification and multigene molecular analyses are needed for the type and other species of Dictyodothis, Dothiora, Endodothiora, Kabatina, Phaeocryptopus and Pringsheimia in order to confirm the familial status in Dothideaceae as no type species sequences are available.

Key to sexual genera of Dothideaceae

  1. Ascostromata superficial, gregarious, globose to globose-depressed, black, developing on conifer needles Phaeocryptopus
  2. Ascostromata immersed, becoming erumpent, clustered, gregarious, or scattered, pulvinate or crustose, locules subglobose to globose, dark brown to black, developing on twigs, woody branches or leaves…… 2
  3. Ascostromata uni-loculate, loculi usually broad……………………………………………………………….. 3
  4. Ascostromata usually multiloculate, loculi often sphaerical……………………………………………….. 4
  5. Asci with many ascospores…………………………………………………………………………………. Sydowia
  6. Asci with 8, multiseptate ascospores, constricted at the primary septum…………… Pringsheimia
  7. Asci with many, 1-septate, hyaline ascospores constricted at the septum……………. Delphinella
  8. Asci with 8 or many, 1-septate or multiseptate or muriform, hyaline or pigmented ascospores constricted at the primary septum………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
  9. Ascospores hyaline to brown, 1-many septate or muriform……………………………………………….. 6
  10. Ascospores hyaline, 1-septate, strongly constricted at the septum……………………….. Plowrightia
  11. Asci with 4–8, ellipsoid to fusiform, brown, 1-septate ascospores………………………… Stylodothis
  12. Asci with 8 or more, brown or hyaline, 1-many septate or muriform ascospores…………………… 7
  13. Asci with 8, 1-many septate or muriform ascospores………………………………………………………… 8
  14. Asci with 8 or more, 1- septate or muriform ascospores…………………………………………………….. 9
  15. Ascospores brown, muriform, with longitudinal and transverse septa ………………… Dictyodothis
  16. Ascospores hyaline to brown, 1-septate constricted at the septum………………………….. Dothidea
  17. Asci with many, hyaline, ascospores with 5–7 transverse septa ………………………. Endodothiora
  18. 9. Asci usually with 8, hyaline, one to many septate or muriform, ascospores……………… Dothiora

Key to asexual genera of Dothideaceae

  1. Two types of conidia, endoconidia hyaline, unicellular, blastic conidia mostly two-celled, light to dark brown Endoconidioma
  2. Only one type of conidia, conidia hyaline, smooth-walled, aseptate………………………………….. 2
  3. Conidiophores absent, conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells………………………………… 3
  4. Conidiophores present………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
  5. Conidia solitary, hyaline, smooth-walled, granular or not, cylindrical with obtuse apex, tapering at base to truncate scar………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Cylindroseptoria
  6. Conidia mostly straight, rarely slightly curved, apex subobtuse, base truncate, guttulate…………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Neocylindroseptoria

7. Conidiogenous cells enteroblastic, phialidic or percurrent, determinate, brown to pale brown, channel and collarette, periclinal thickening present or absent……………………………………………………… Kabatina

8. Conidiogenous cells discrete or integrated, determinate, hyaline, phialidic…………. Coleophoma